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Chapter 9

PSY100 Psychological Science (3rd Ed.) Textbook Notes Chapter 9

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Alison Luby

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CHAPTER 9 MOTIVATION AND EMOTION Motivation -Motivation: factors that energize, direct, or sustain behavior; they are energizing, directive, help ppl persist and differ in strength Factors Motivating Behavior -Maslows Hierarchy of Needs: arrangement of needs (state of biological/social deficiency) in which basic survival needs must be met before ppl can satisfy their higher needs Example of humanistic psychology, viewing ppl as striving toward personal fulfillment Self-Actualization occurs when someone achieves his personal dreams and aspirations and is truly happy Self-Actualization Esteem Belonging and Love Safety Physiological Drives and Incentives -Needs create arousal and motivate behavior -Arousal: physiological activation, such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses, sweating, muscle tension -Drive: psychological state that motivates an organism to satisfy its needs; drives create arousal e.g. food (need) hunger (drive) eating (behavior) -basic drives for biological states help animals maintain homeostatis: the tendency for bodily functions to maintain equilibrium, regulated by hypothalamus in negative feedback system -if behavior satisfies a need, and consistently reduces drive, it becomes a habit; the likelihood of a behavior occurring is due to drive and habit -Incentive: external stimuli (objects/goals) as opposed to internal drives that motivate behaviors (e.g. getting good grades incentive for studying) Arousal and Performance -Yerkes-Dodson Law: principle dictates that performance increases with arousal until an optimal point, then arousal interferes with performance E.g. students perform best on exams w/ moderate anxiety Quality of Performance Arousal -Pleasure Principle: proposed by Freud; says ppl are driven to seek pleasure and avoid pain; relates to concept of hedonism, humans desire for pleasantness Ppl engage in behavior that do not necessarily satisfy biological needs; newborns prefer sweet tastes to bitter Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motives -Extrinsic Motivation: motivation to perform activity b/c of the external goals toward which that activity is directed; e.g. working to earn paycheque -Intrinsic Motivation: motivation to perform activity b/c of the value/pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for apparent external goal or purpose; e.g. listening to music -extrinsic rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation: when children told to draw w/ color pens (usually intrinsically motivating), the group that was extrinsically motivated to draw by being led to expect a reward afterwards spent less time playing w/ pens than groups not expecting rewards-Self-Determination Theory: says ppl are motivated to satisfy needs for competence, relatedness to others and autonomy; extrinsic rewards reduce intrinsic value b/c they prevent ppl from feeling that they are choosing to do something for themselves -Self-Perception Theory: states that ppl are seldom aware of their specific motives and instead draw inferences about their motivations according to what seems to make the most sense e.g. thinking that you were thirsty after drinking a whole glass of water w/o sensation of thirst rewarding ppl for engaging in intrinsic activity gives ppl alternative explanation for engaging in it: w/o the reward, they have no reason to engage in the behavior Goals -desired outcome, associated w/ specific object or some future behavioral intention -Self-Efficacy: expectancy that your efforts will lead to success; belief helps mobilize your energies (e.g. if you believe studying hard will increase grades, you will be motivated to study) -Achievement Motive: desire to do well relative to standards of excellence students high in achievement need set challenging but attainable goals and score higher on exams; students lower in achievement need set easy or extremely high goals -Delay of Gratification: process of transcending immediate temptations to achieve long term goals. Children age 4 who were better at delaying gratification (choosing to eat 2 marshmallows after waiting rather than eating 1 right away) rated 10 years later as more socially competent and better able to handle frustration; predicts higher SAT scores and better school grades Strategies included ignoring, self-distraction, and turning hot cognitions into cold cognitions (transforming desired object into something undesired) Need to Belong -Need to Belong Theory: the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes -not belonging to a group increases a persons risk for illnesses and premature death -but students who choose to spend time alone report lower levels of loneliness than students who preferred not to be alone/forced to be alone -ppl who
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