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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Key Terms
psychological
science The study of mind, brain, and behaviour.
evolutionary
theoryIn psychological science, a theory that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive value of
behaviour and mental activity throughout the entire history of a species.
natural
selection Darwin's theory that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to
their particular environment have a selective advantage over those who do not.
adaptationsIn evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that increase
the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be.
culture The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who
share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through
learning from one generation to the next.
nature-
nurture
debate
The arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically
innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture.
mind-body
problemA fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind and body are
separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of
the physical brain.
dualismThe philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical body.
Introspection A systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to
inspect and report on the content of their thoughts.
structuralismAn approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be
broken down into its basic underlying components or elements.
stream of
consciousnes
s
A phrase coined by William James to describe one's continuous series of ever-
changing thoughts.
functionalismAn approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of
mind and behaviour.
Gestalt
theoryA theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is much greater
than simply the sum of its constituent elements.
unconsciousA term that identifies mental processes that operate below the level of conscious
awareness.
psychoanalys
isA method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the
unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed.
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behaviourismA psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in
producing behaviour.
psychological
scientistOne who uses the methods of science to study the interplay between brain, mind,
and behaviour and how the social environment affects these processes.
psychological
practitionersThose who apply findings from psychological science in order to assist people in
their daily lives.
critical
thinking A systematic way of evaluating information in order to reach reasonable
conclusions.
Reviewing the Principles
What Are the Themes of psychological Science?
Psychological science is the study of mind, brain, and behaviour. Four themes
characterize psychological science. (1) It is cumulative, in that principles are established on
the basis of incremental advances in knowledge obtained through research. (2) A biological
revolution has been energizing psychological research. Increasing knowledge of the
neurochemistry of mental disorders, the mapping of the human genome, and the invention of
imaging technologies that allow researchers to observe the working brain in action have
provided psychological scientists with the methods to examine how the brain enables the
mind. (3) Psychological science has also been heavily influenced in recent years by
evolutionary psychology, which argues that the brain has evolved to solve adaptive problems.
(4) Finally, although psychological scientists share the common goal of understanding mind,
brain, and behaviour, they do so by focusing on the same problems at different levels of
analysis.
The principles of psychological science are cumulative:
oPsychological science relies on empirical evidence and builds on previous
discoveries in a dynamic way.
The new biological revolution is energizing research:
oDiscoveries in brain activity have been enhanced by the discoveries of
neurotransmitters. Mapping of the human genome has furthered the role of
genetics in analyzing disease and behaviour. Tremendous advances in brain
imaging have revealed the working brain.
The mind is adaptive:
oThe brain has evolved to solve survival problems and adapt to environments.
Many modern behaviours are by-products of adaptation.
Psychological science crosses levels of analysis:
oPsychological scientists examine behaviour from a variety of levels of analysis:
social (culture and interpersonal behaviour), individual (personality, and
perception and cognition), and biological (brain systems, neurochemistry, and
genetics).
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Key Terms psychological The study of mind, brain, and behaviour. science evolutionary In psychological science, a theory that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive value of theory behaviour and mental activity throughout the entire history of a species. natural Darwins theory that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to selection their particular environment have a selective advantage over those who do not. adaptations In evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that increase the chances of reproduction or survival and are therefore likely to be. culture The beliefs, values, rules, and customs that exist within a group of people who share a common language and environment and that are transmitted through learning from one generation to the next. nature- The arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically nurture innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture. debate mind-body A fundamental psychological issue that considers whether mind and body are problem separate and distinct or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical brain. dualism The philosophical idea that the mind exists separately from the physical body. Introspection A systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts. structuralism An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components or elements. stream of A phrase coined by William James to describe ones continuous series of ever- consciousnes changing thoughts. s functionalism An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behaviour. Gestalt A theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is much greater theory than simply the sum of its constituent elements. unconscious A term that identifies mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness. psychoanalys A method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the is unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed. www.notesolution.com
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