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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Introduction

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Themes
The Principles of Psychological Science are Cumulative
Principles are established based on incremental advances in knowledge obtained
through research.
A New Biological Revolution is Energizing Research
Neurochemistry
The mapping of the human genome
Imaging technologies watching the working brain
The Mind is Adaptive
Evolutionary theory the brain has evolved to solve adaptive problems.
Natural selection those adaptations which help pass on genes are passed on
What is considered adaptive changes if the environment changes
Solving Adaptive Problems
oBehaviours may be solutions to adaptive problems for individuals and groups
oDiscouraging lying and cheating is good for a group as it would drain
resources for others
oAbility to see, remember where food is, recognize dangers, and understand
laws of physics are all useful for survival
Modern Minds in Stone Age Skulls
oMust understand challenges of ancestors to understand much of our
behaviour
oEvolved slowly over millions of years, but modern humans are only about
100,000 years old
oHuman brain adapted to meet needs of hunter-gatherers
oPreference for fatty-sweet foods would have been adaptive, because they
would have had substantial survival value as they are high in calories
www.notesolution.com
oNow maladaptive because it can produce obesity
Culture Provides Adaptive Solutions
oCultural evolution takes place over a shorter period
oSuccessful methods of hunting and gathering, beliefs about supernatural
forces, etc. are passed down
oCulture shapes how people view and reason about the world e.g. Westerners
see details, Easterners see whole picture
Psychological Science Crosses Levels of Analysis
Social
oCultural norms, beliefs, values, symbols, ethnicity
oInterpersonal groups, relationships, persuasion, influence, workplace
Individual
oIndividual differences personality, gender, development age groups, self-
concept
oPerception and cognition thinking, decision making, language, memory,
seeing, hearing
oBehaviour observable actions, responses, physical movements
Biological
oBrain systems neuroanatomy, animal research, brain imaging
oNeurochemical neurotransmitters and hormones, animal studies, drug
studies
oGenetic gene mechanisms, heritability, twin and adoption studies
Intellectual Origins
The Nature-Nurture Debate
Biologically innate, or acquired through education, experience, and culture.
The Mind-Body Problem
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Themes The Principles of Psychological Science are Cumulative Principles are established based on incremental advances in knowledge obtained through research. A New Biological Revolution is Energizing Research Neurochemistry The mapping of the human genome Imaging technologies watching the working brain The Mind is Adaptive Evolutionary theory the brain has evolved to solve adaptive problems. Natural selection those adaptations which help pass on genes are passed on What is considered adaptive changes if the environment changes Solving Adaptive Problems o Behaviours may be solutions to adaptive problems for individuals and groups o Discouraging lying and cheating is good for a group as it would drain resources for others o Ability to see, remember where food is, recognize dangers, and understand laws of physics are all useful for survival Modern Minds in Stone Age Skulls o Must understand challenges of ancestors to understand much of our behaviour o Evolved slowly over millions of years, but modern humans are only about 100,000 years old o Human brain adapted to meet needs of hunter-gatherers o Preference for fatty-sweet foods would have been adaptive, because they would have had substantial survival value as they are high in calories www.notesolution.com
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