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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 notes

10 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence
Intelligence: a combination of being able to learn quickly, make
reasonable decisions, and adapt to diverse challenges
-dread risks: born of uncommon events, can have a profound impact on
reasoning and decision making
-people who are better at using info are intelligent
-we develop rules for making fast decisions
-snap judgements have important consequences
How does the mind represent information?
-cognition: thinking or representing info
-2 types of representations (both form the basis of human thought, intelligence
and ability to solve complex problems of everyday life):
Analogical Representations
oHave some characteristics of actual objects
oExample: maps reflecting the physical layout of geography
or family trees indicating the degree of relationship between
relatives
Symbolic Representations (abstract)
oAre words or ideas
oExample: knowing that the word violin stands for musical
object
***there is very little correspondence between what a violin looks like or sounds
like and the letters that make up the word violin***
Mental images are analogical representations
-Roger Shepard and colleagues (1970)
Participants were to view letters and numbers and to determine
whether the given object was in its normal orientation or was a
mirror image
(figure 8.1: Mental Rotation pg.299) the time it takes to determine
whether the Ris normal or a mirror image increases with the
amount of rotation away from the upright letter
-Kosslyn and others have shown that visual imagery is associated with activity in
perception-related areas of the brain (primary visual cortex). These areas are
responsible for providing spatial aspects of analogical visual imagery (ex: sixe
and shape)
-Kosslyn and colleagues found in a brain imaging study that participants asked to
recall images they had just memorized demonstrated that analogical
representations activate the primary visual cortex
1
www.notesolution.com
Limits of analogical representations
-if something cannot be wholly perceived by our perceptual system we cannot
have a complete analogical representation of it
-mental maps involve a mixture of analogical and symbolic representations
Conceptions are symbolic representations
-symbolic representations consist of words and abstract ideas
-to reduce the amt. of knowledge held in memory and to think efficiently we use
categorization: grouping things together based on shared properties
-concept: refers to a class or category that includes some number of individuals
or subtypes
-concepts allow us to organize mental representations around common themes,
ensuring that every instance of an object, a relation, or a quality does not need to
be stored individually and allowing the abstract representation of knowledge with
shared similar properties
-defining attribute model: concepts are formed by defining attributes, each
concept is characterized by a list of features that re necessary to determine if an
object is a member of a category
-membership within a category is on an all-or-none basis, but in reality we often
make exceptions in our categorizations
-to address the shortcomings of the defining attribute model, we often take a
more flexible approach to object categorization that is based in prototype
models
-within each category, some members of a particular category are more
representative or prototypical of that category that other members
Schemas Organize Useful Information about the Environment
-schemas: enables us to interact with the complex realities of our daily
environments
-schemas help us perceive, organize and process information
-schemas about the sequence of events that occur in different situations
-the researchers Roger Schank and Robert Abelson referred to these schemas
about sequences as scripts
-essential elements of schemas are that: 1) common situations have consistent
attributes, such as a library’s being quiet and having books; and 2) people have
specific roles within the situational context, such as a librarian or a reader who
wants to check out a book.
-schemas and scripts can sometimes have unintended consequences, such as
reinforcing sexist or racists beliefs
-scripts dictate ``appropriate`` behaviours
-what we view as appropriate is shaped by culture
2
www.notesolution.com
-children whose parents smoked or consumed alcohol were four times more
likely to select them
-children were asked about the items they chose, and it was clear that alcohol
and cigarettes were included in the childrens scripts of adult social life
How do we make decisions and solve problems?
-is more thinking associated with better decisions??
-we are suspicious of quick decisions b/c its hard to believe ppl can make good
decisions without rational consideration of all possibilities
-the ability to have rational thought and use it to guide decisions and
actions=fundamental characteristics of human cognition
People use deductive and inductive reasoning
-reasoning: evaluating info, arguments and beliefs to draw conclusions
-deductive reasoning: logic is used to draw specific conclusion from given
premises (example on pg. 306)
-tasks which require the use of deductive reasoning presented in the form of
syllogisms: logical arguments containing premises and a conclusion
-conditional syllogism: the argument is in the form: if A is true then b is true
Example: If Bonnie has good taste, then the Thai restaurant she
recommends will have delicious food. If you like Thai cuisine, then
youll enjoy your meal. Conclusion is conditioned on whether the
premises are true.
-categorical syllogism: logical argument contains two premises and a conclusion
(valid or invalid)
Example (a): All A are B [Queen Elizabeth is a person]
All B are C [All people are mammals]
Therefore, all A are C [therefore, Queen Elizabeth is a
mammal]
valid conclusion
Example (b): All A are B [All people from Vancouver are friendly]
Some B are C [Some friendly people like Thai Food]
Therefore, all A are C [Therefore, all people from
Vancouver like Thai food]
invalid conclusion (b/c some A are not C)
-deductive reasoning allows reasoner to determine truth of a statement given
premises
***reasoner can however come up with an incorrect but valid conclusion if
premises are incorrect***
-our reasoning is influenced by our prior beliefs
Example: all foods made of spinach are delicious and that the cake
is made of spinach—conclusion: the cake is delicious
3
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 8: Thinking and Intelligence Intelligence: a combination of being able to learn quickly, make reasonable decisions, and adapt to diverse challenges -dread risks: born of uncommon events, can have a profound impact on reasoning and decision making -people who are better at using info are intelligent -we develop rules for making fast decisions -snap judgements have important consequences How does the mind represent information? -cognition: thinking or representing info -2 types of representations (both form the basis of human thought, intelligence and ability to solve complex problems of everyday life): Analogical Representations o Have some characteristics of actual objects o Example: maps reflecting the physical layout of geography or family trees indicating the degree of relationship between relatives Symbolic Representations (abstract) o Are words or ideas o Example: knowing that the word violin stands for musical object ***there is very little correspondence between what a violin looks like or sounds like and the letters that make up the word violin*** Mental images are analogical representations -Roger Shepard and colleagues (1970) Participants were to view letters and numbers and to determine whether the given object was in its normal orientation or was a mirror image (figure 8.1: Mental Rotation pg.299) the time it takes to determine whether the R is normal or a mirror image increases with the amount of rotation away from the upright letter -Kosslyn and others have shown that visual imagery is associated with activity in perception-related areas of the brain (primary visual cortex). These areas are responsible for providing spatial aspects of analogical visual imagery (ex: sixe and shape) -Kosslyn and colleagues found in a brain imaging study that participants asked to recall images they had just memorized demonstrated that analogical representations activate the primary visual cortex 1 www.notesolution.com
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