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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 notes

11 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 9: Motivation
Motivation is the area of psychological science that studies factors that energize, direct, stimulate
or sustain behaviour
oHow behaviour is initiated, directed and sustained
How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behaviour?
Where do needs come from?
Need, Drives and Arousal Motivate Behaviour
oA need is a state of deficiency, such as lack of air or food.
What do we need to stay alive?
We also need social, needs to have a satisfying live
oAbraham Maslow created a need hierarchy
Survival needs, are lowest
Personal growth, are highest
Humanistic psychology, people are striving towards personal fulfillment
Self-actualization, is when someone achieves their personal dreams and
aspirations
There are some discrepancies with this; some people starve to show that they can
hope for the best.
Drives
oDrives are psychological states activated to satisfy needs
i.e. level of sex drive, being driven to succeed
oArousal, motivates behaviours that will satisfy these needs (drive)
A term used to describe psychological activation, such as increased brain activity,
autonomic responses, swearing or muscle tension
oFor biological states, we have to maintain homeostasis with a negative feedback system
oDrive increases with an amount of deprivation, performance reduces drive
oIncentives are external stimuli that motivate behaviours (as opposed to internal drives)
Arousal and Performance
oYerkes-Dodsons law states that performance increases with arousal until an optimal point,
after which arousal interferes with performance
www.notesolution.com
Pleasure Can Motivate Adaptive Behaviours
oSigmund Freud stated the pleasure principle, which tells organism to seek pleasure and
avoid pain
This idea is central to many themes of motivation
oBehaviours with pleasure are associated with survival and reproduction
Behaviours associated with pain that interfere with survival and reproduction
i.e. having sweet treats, as opposed to bitter treats (poison)
Some Behaviours Are Motivated for Their Own Sake
oExtrinsic motivation is the motivation to perform an activity because of the external
goals toward which that activity is directed
i.e. winning a trophy, getting a pay check
oIntrinsic motivation is the motivation to perform an activity because of the value or
pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for an apparent biological goal or
purpose
the value or pleasure of an activity, listening to music, liking to play soccer
Curiosity and Play
Curiosity is the mental state that leads to intrinsically motivated behaviour
oSeeking out new situation and games, adventures
oChildren become fascinated of new objects, but moving on when interest is gone
Play lets us learn about objects in the environment.
oHelps us with knowledge
In one task children were given 2 sticks to retrieve a piece of chalk
Children who were given the solution, and exposed to the items
beforehand performed more well
Creativity and Problem Solving
Intrinsically motivated behaviour allow people to express creativity
oCreativity is the tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in
solving problems, communication and entertaining ourselves and others
oApplying existing ideas to new problems
www.notesolution.com
Rewarding Intrinsic Motives
Rewarding behaviours increases its frequency
Intrinsic rewards will support these behaviours
oi.e. there are 3 group of children, one group was given an expectation of reward, one
was given a reward after, and one was given no rewards with a task of drawing
beautiful pictures with markers (highly motivating task)
Children with expectations did not play with the pens but used them to draw
Control Theory and Self Perception
Extrinsic rewards reduce the value of intrinsic values
oi.e. you reward yourself with a glass a water (extrinsic), as opposed to intrinsic (you
felt the need for thirst)
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 9: Motivation Motivation is the area of psychological science that studies factors that energize, direct, stimulate or sustain behaviour o How behaviour is initiated, directed and sustained How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behaviour? Where do needs come from? Need, Drives and Arousal Motivate Behaviour o A need is a state of deficiency, such as lack of air or food. What do we need to stay alive? We also need social, needs to have a satisfying live o Abraham Maslow created a need hierarchy Survival needs, are lowest Personal growth, are highest Humanistic psychology, people are striving towards personal fulfillment Self-actualization, is when someone achieves their personal dreams and aspirations There are some discrepancies with this; some people starve to show that they can hope for the best. Drives o Drives are psychological states activated to satisfy needs i.e. level of sex drive, being driven to succeed o Arousal, motivates behaviours that will satisfy these needs (drive) A term used to describe psychological activation, such as increased brain activity, autonomic responses, swearing or muscle tension o For biological states, we have to maintain homeostasis with a negative feedback system o Drive increases with an amount of deprivation, performance reduces drive o Incentives are external stimuli that motivate behaviours (as opposed to internal drives) Arousal and Performance o Yerkes-Dodsons law states that performance increases with arousal until an optimal point, after which arousal interferes with performance www.notesolution.comPleasure Can Motivate Adaptive Behaviours o Sigmund Freud stated the pleasure principle, which tells organism to seek pleasure and avoid pain This idea is central to many themes of motivation o Behaviours with pleasure are associated with survival and reproduction Behaviours associated with pain that interfere with survival and reproduction i.e. having sweet treats, as opposed to bitter treats (poison) Some Behaviours Are Motivated for Their Own Sake o Extrinsic motivation is the motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed i.e. winning a trophy, getting a pay check o Intrinsic motivation is the motivation to perform an activity because of the value or pleasure associated with that activity, rather than for an apparent biological goal or purpose the value or pleasure of an activity, listening to music, liking to play soccer Curiosity and Play Curiosity is the mental state that leads to intrinsically motivated behaviour o Seeking out new situation and games, adventures o Children become fascinated of new objects, but moving on when interest is gone Play lets us learn about objects in the environment. o Helps us with knowledge In one task children were given 2 sticks to retrieve a piece of chalk Children who were given the solution, and exposed to the items beforehand performed more well Creativity and Problem Solving Intrinsically motivated behaviour allow people to express creativity o Creativity is the tendency to generate ideas or alternatives that may be useful in solving problems, communication and entertaining ourselves and others o Applying existing ideas to new problems www.notesolution.com
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