The scientific method is an objective examination of the natural world
A scientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection of data is research
Data are objective observations of methods
Serendipity is the unexpected stumbling upon something important
A scientist investigated the effects of alcohol on driving ability. Alcohol and driving ability are both
In an experiment, the dependant variable is affected by the independent variable
An operational definition is a method by which researchers quantify variables to measure them
Anything that effects a dependant variable that may unintentionally vary between the different
experimental conditions of a study is a confound
Naturalistic observation is a passive descriptive study in which observers do not change or alter ongoing
Participant observation: a psychologist who joined a cult to observe the behavior of cult members
engaged in this kind of descriptive study
Observational techniques involve systematic assessment of overt behavior.
A change in behavior as a result of knowing that you are being observed is called reactivity.
Observer bias (}Çu]}]v}À]}vZ}µµ}v}À[Æ]}vX
Experimenter expectancy effect is an actual change in behavior of the people or animals being observed
that is due to observer bias. (ex. Rat experiment, p. 250)
Self report methods: a method of data collection in which people are asked to provide information
about themselves such as in questionnaires or surveys.
Socially desirable responding is when people respond to a question in a way that is most socially
acceptable or makes them look good.
A case study involves the intensive examination of one person.
Response performance is a research method in which researchers quantify perceptual of cognitive
processes in response to a specific stimulus. Researchers infer how a stimulus is processed from how a
person responds to it. It can be quantified in 3 ways: reaction time, response accuracy, and by asking
people to make stimulus judgments.
Reaction time is a quantification of performance behavior that measures the speed of a response.