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PSY100H1 (1,839)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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x Four themes in psychological science
x Research in psychology resulted in accumulated knowledge
x Biological revolution t changes in what we know about brain chemicals, genes, and
techniques to measure brain functions have had a prodounf influence on psychological
science.
x Evolution t according to evolutionary theory, some members of a species have adaptive
traits, while other members do not. The adaptive traits are those that allow an
individual to survive to reproduce. These adaptive traits are then passed off to
offspring. Humans have been evolving so many human behaviors must have adaptive
significance. Cultural ecolution t a culture defines the beliefs, values, and rules of a
group of people. Therefore, culture has a big impact on a }v[Á}oÀ]Áv]
life.
x Several categories used to study psych. Science: social, psychological and biological.
x The mind body problem: a common belief through history was that the mind and body are
distinct: this is known as dualism. If the mind and body are interdependent, how can the mind
be studied? Rene Decartes proposed that although they are distinct, the mind and body are
connected and interact with each other.
x Charles Darwin: evolutionary theory and natural selection. Organisms that have adaptive traits
live long enough to pass those traits on to offspring, who in turn will continue to pass the traits
on.
x John Stewart Mill proposed that psych should become a science based on experimentation. He
said that psychology is separate frp, philosophy and proposed that it docus on observation and
experimentation.
x biologists developed methods to measure psychological functions such as sensation and
perception.
x Wilhelm wundt established first psych. Lab. He also wanted to study the conscious experience t
developed the method of introspection. (a systematic examination of subjective mental
experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts)
x His student Titchener developed the first perspective in psych t structuralism. This is the view
that conscious experience can be broken down into its parts.
x William james criticized structuralism t instead of focusing on components of consciousness, he
focused on what the mind is used for and how it works t functionalism. Believed that thought
was ever changing and could not be frozen in time t ^u}(}v]}µv_X
x Another alternative to structuralism was the Gestalt movement t emphasized that perception is
more than the sum of its parts t when you look at four lines connected at right angles, you see a
rectangle, not four lines.
x Freud presented the idea of the unconscious t father of psychoanalysis
x Kurt Lewin developed field theory to study how biology, habits and beliefs all influence behavior
x Mind t includes mental activities such as thoughts and feelings
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Description
N Four themes in psychological science N Research in psychology resulted in accumulated knowledge N Biological revolution J changes in what we know about brain chemicals, genes, and techniques to measure brain functions have had a prodounf influence on psychological science. N Evolution J according to evolutionary theory, some members of a species have adaptive traits, while other members do not. The adaptive traits are those that allow an individual to survive to reproduce. These adaptive traits are then passed off to offspring. Humans have been evolving so many human behaviors must have adaptive significance. Cultural ecolution J a culture defines the beliefs, values, and rules of a group of people. Therefore, culture has a big impact on a Z}L[Z}o]L]o life. N Several categories used to study psych. Science: social, psychological and biological. N The mind body problem: a common belief through history was that the mind and body are distinct: this is known as dualism. If the mind and body are interdependent, how can the mind be studied? Rene Decartes proposed that although they are distinct, the mind and body are connected and interact with each other. N Charles Darwin: evolutionary theory and natural selection. Organisms that have adaptive traits live long enough to pass those traits on to offspring, who in turn will continue to pass the traits on. N John Stew
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