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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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desires, and to disregard those which oppose them... we receive as friendly that which agrees with us,
we resist with dislike that which opposes us; whereas the very reverse is required by every dictate of
}uu}vv_t D]Zo&ÇX[
Cognitive Psychology: The Rise of the Machine
Information Age t spawns a new era in psychology. Zeitgeist of the times is emerging computer
technology, emphasis on humans as information processors, wrestled with behaviourism for
prominence and largely won, returning psychology to the focus of the mind.
Cognitive
All the processes by which sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, retrieved,
recovered and used.
íõôì[}EKt
These movements within psych merge. New inter-disciplinary fields, social cognition...
íõõì[
dZ}(Z]vX&DZ/[}vZ]vXuPv}(}Á(µoZv}o}P](}]v
imaging, so that for the first time we can see the functioning of the brain as it occurs, and can begin to
correlate specific brain areas with specific thoughts. In recent years, Psychology has become a very
integrated discipline, where phenomena are being understood at multiple levels of analysis. This is
different from how people have trad practiced science, and we are right now in the beg of new study
era.
Personality vs. Situation?
Multiple areas of analysis force people to study from multiple perspectives, i.e. psychologists study that
}o[actions are based on what is going on in the mind. Others study the fact that actions can be
based on specific situations.
Nature vs. Nurture?
Biologically fixed or dependant on circumstance? Are you seeing one person as a biological product, or a
product of culture, and experience?
Central vs. Peripheral Processing?
Logical reasoning against emotional levels (i.e. information ad versus hot girl with beer ad) In a sense a
}v[]}v~ÀvÁZvZÇÇ}Z]vlo}P]o}vooÇv}vZoPuided by emotional
processes)
EXAMPLE
www.notesolution.com
tZÇv[>]o:}ZvvÇZM
Traditionally people tend to look at this based on their own background
Social: maybe it has to do with his parents, discipline, friend influences, teacher expectations...
Individual: IQ, misbehaving, lack of self-discipline, work ethic
Biological: ADHD, dyslexia, or hearing impairment.
Environmental: Traffic noise, crowded home, lack of resources (e.g. time, space, privacy)
Thinking in terms of multiple Causes Changes how we understand many things
What is depression, anyway? Refer to the big diagram (in textbook).
Depression is a combination of multiple and integrated ideas t such as control beliefs, meaninglessness,
emotions, etc. Therefore depression can be affected by adjusting either, or multiple of this level. Can
there be different therapeutic techniques together to fight depression and which ones are more
efficient and effective.
Behaviour is Multiply Determined...
Science: Just the facts? We can never deal with reality directly, just using our own perception of reality.
^]v]v[ooÇ}µ(V][}µZÇ}ZU}À]}vv}voµ]}vXDµZ}(ÁZÁ
believe in today will, in 50 years, seem largely irrelevant and maybe even silly. Therefore, a single
research study is not very meaningful!
So how do you know if anything is true? Through replication (repetition of same process to get same
result), convergence (same conclusion from slightly different direction), multiple methods and a peer
review process.
Peer Review
Science progresses as an evidence-based, expert-adjudicated democracy. Secondary sources, books, and
articles that are not in peer-reviewed journals are unfortunately not very reliable.
Testing a Hypothesis
Does exposure to violent media lead to or cause violent behaviour?
Independent Variable = Violent Media
Dependent Variable= Violent behaviour
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Description
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