Traditionally people tend to look at this based on their own background
Social: maybe it has to do with his parents, discipline, friend influences, teacher expectations...
Individual: IQ, misbehaving, lack of self-discipline, work ethic
Biological: ADHD, dyslexia, or hearing impairment.
Environmental: Traffic noise, crowded home, lack of resources (e.g. time, space, privacy)
Thinking in terms of multiple Causes Changes how we understand many things
What is depression, anyway? Refer to the big diagram (in textbook).
Depression is a combination of multiple and integrated ideas t such as control beliefs, meaninglessness,
emotions, etc. Therefore depression can be affected by adjusting either, or multiple of this level. Can
there be different therapeutic techniques together to fight depression and which ones are more
efficient and effective.
Behaviour is Multiply Determined...
Science: Just the facts? We can never deal with reality directly, just using our own perception of reality.
believe in today will, in 50 years, seem largely irrelevant and maybe even silly. Therefore, a single
research study is not very meaningful!
So how do you know if anything is true? Through replication (repetition of same process to get same
result), convergence (same conclusion from slightly different direction), multiple methods and a peer
Science progresses as an evidence-based, expert-adjudicated democracy. Secondary sources, books, and
articles that are not in peer-reviewed journals are unfortunately not very reliable.
Testing a Hypothesis
Does exposure to violent media lead to or cause violent behaviour?
Independent Variable = Violent Media
Dependent Variable= Violent behaviour