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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Memory: the capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing
organisms to benefit from the experience
Modal memory model: three stage system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory, and long
term memory
Sensory information, such as lights, smells and odors, leaves a trace on the nervous system for a split
second and then vanishes. This temporary sensory buffer is referred to as sensory memory. Visual
sensory memory is also called iconic memory; auditory sensory memory is also called echoic memory.
Iconic memory persisted for about 1/3 of a second, according to the grid of letters experiment.
Information that is attended to is passed from sensory stores to short term memory (STM), a limited-
capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period. Computer analogy =
RAM
Short term memory can hold information for no longer than about 20 seconds; it then disappears unless
you actively prevent that from happening by thinking about the information or rehearsing it. Example:
directory assistance- you repeat the phone number until you dial.
STM is generally limited to about seven items, plus or minus two, which is commonly referred to as
memory span. Memory span is limited to as most seven items, and probably fewer, but the items can be
letters, numbers, words, or even concepts. Second, meaningful units are easier to remember than
nonsense units. The process of organizing information into meaningful units is known as chunking.
Example- chess players are able to reconstruct a chess board by chunking the pieces into meaningful
patterns.
STM is not a single storage system but rather an active processing unit that deals with multiple types of
information, such as sounds, images and ideas.
Working memory is an active processing system that keeps information available so that it can be used
for activities such as problem solving, reasoning, and comprehension. Three components of working
memory are central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad.
Central executive presides over its interactions between subsystems and long-term memory. It encodes
information from the sensory systems and then filters information that is sufficiently important to be
stored in a long term memory. It also retrieves information from the long-term memory as needed.
Phonological loop encodes auditory information and is active whenever you read, speak, or repeat
words to yourself in order to remember them. Words are processed in working memory by how they
sound ZZvÇÁZZÇuvXZuu^]vvÀ}]_ÁZvÇ}µ]vPX
Visuospatial sketchpad processes visual information such as objects features and where they are
located. Example t you see a dog as you are walking. Visuospatial sketchpad helps you keep track of
where the dog is and if it is the type of dog that needs to be carefully tracked.
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Long term memory t relatively permanent storage of information. computer analogy t hard disk.
Human LTM is nearly limitless.
Serial position effect: ability to better remember items presented near the beginning and the end of a
list.
Primacy effect refers to the better memory people have for items presented first, where the regency
effect refers to our better memory for the most recent items.
As people study a long list, they rehearse the earlier items the most, and that information is transferred
into LTM. The last few items are in the STM.
STM and LTM are highly interdependent. For instance, to chunk information in STM, people need to
form meaningful connections based on information in the LTM.
One possible explanation for how info enters LTM: rehearsal. Memory studies show that over learning,
in which you keep rehearsing material you already know pretty well, leads to improved memory,
especially over long periods of time.
Distributive practice, studying that is spread out over time, is better remembered than material that is
studied in a brief period of time, called mass practice, or cramming.
Another possibility: only info that helps us adapt to the environment is transferred from STM to LTM. By
storing information that is meaningful, organisms can benefit from experience. Evolutionary theory
helps explain how we decide in advance what information will be useful. Reproduction and survival
instincts t recognizing a predator, etc.
Explicit memory involves the processes used to remember specific information. Information retrieved
in explicit memory is known as declarative memory, which refers to cognitive information that can be
brought to mind, that is, knowledge that can be declared.
Episodic memory (}}v}v[Æ]vXSemantic memory v}v[
knowledge of trivial or important facts independent of personal experience.
Implicit memory is the process by which people show without deliberate effort and without any
awareness that they are remembering something. Classical conditioning t examples of implicit memory.
Implicit memory does not require attention.
Procedural memory is also an example of implicit memory. Also known as motor memory, which
involves motor skills, habits, and other behaviors you employ to achieve a goal such as coordinating
muscle movements to ride a bicycle or following the rules of the road while driving.
False fame effect: hearing a name before and not remembering who it is but assuming they are famous
because you have heard their name.
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Implicit memory is also involved in repetition priming, the improvement in identifying or processing a
stimulus that has previously been experienced. Appearance, chestnut, patent t we will fill app_____,
che_______ , pa____ with these words after reading them, rather than application, cheese and paternal
Memory can be divided temporally into three processes. Encoding, storage and retrieval.
In encoding¸ our perpetual experiences are transformed into representation, or codes, which are stored.
Example: shaggy, four legged animal = dog
Storage refers to the retention of encoded representations over time and corresponds to some change
in the nervous system that registers over time and corresponds to some change in the nervous system
that registers this event. Stored representations are referred to as memories.
Retrieval is the act of recalling or remembering the stored information in order to use it. Involves
explicit and implicit memory.
Memories are stored by meaning. According to the levels of processing model. The more deeply an item
is encoded, the more meaning it has and the better it is remembered.
Maintenance rehearsal involves simply repeating the item over and over again.
Elaborative rehearsal involves encoding the information in more meaningful ways, such as thinking
about the item conceptually or deciding whether it refers to oneself.
At the biological level of analysis, brain imaging studies have shown that semantic encoding activates
more brain regions than shallow encoding. Associated with better memory.
Schemas are hypothetical cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process and use
information. Help us to sort out incoming info and guide our attention to relevant features of the
environment. Existing schemas help us make sense of the world but they can lead to biased encoding.
They influence which information is stored in memory.
Example t people are asked to read a story. Some, since they see the name Hellen Keller, report having
seen the line she was deaf, mute and blind in the story when It was not there.
Network models of memory emphasize the links between semantically related items. Distinctive
features of an item are linked together in such a way as to identify it. Each unit of information in the
network is known as a node. Activating one node increases the likelihood that closely associated nodes
will also be activated t spreading activation models of memory.
Anything that helps people access information from LTM is known as a retrieval cue.
Encoding specificity principle, any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger
the memory of the experience. Example t students given list but sat in different rooms. Those tested in
same room recalled more words t context dependent memory.
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Description
Memory: the capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge, allowing organisms to benefit from the experience Modal memory model: three stage system that involves sensory memory, short-term memory, and long term memory Sensory information, such as lights, smells and odors, leaves a trace on the nervous system for a split second and then vanishes. This temporary sensory buffer is referred to as sensory memory. Visual sensory memory is also called iconic memory; auditory sensory memory is also called echoic memory. Iconic memory persisted for about 13 of a second, according to the grid of letters experiment. Information that is attended to is passed from sensory stores to short term memory (STM), a limited- capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period. Computer analogy = RAM Short term memory can hold information for no longer than about 20 seconds; it then disappears unless you actively prevent that from happening by thinking about the information or rehearsing it. Example: directory assistance- you repeat the phone number until you dial. STM is generally limited to about seven items, plus or minus two, which is commonly referred to as memory span. Memory span is limited to as most seven items, and probably fewer, but the items can be letters, numbers, words, or even concepts. Second, meaningful units are easier to remember than nonsense units. The process of organizing information into meaningful units is known as chunking. Example- chess players are able to reconstruct a chess board by chunking the pieces into meaningful patterns. STM is not a single storage system but rather an active processing unit that deals with multiple types of information, such as sounds, images and ideas. Working memory is an active processing system that keeps information available so that it can be used for activities such as problem solving, reasoning, and comprehension. Three components of working memory are central executive, phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad. Central executive presides over its interactions between subsystems and long-term memory. It encodes information from the sensory systems and then filters information that is sufficiently important to be stored in a long term memory. It also retrieves information from the long-term memory as needed. Phonological loop encodes auditory information and is active whenever you read, speak, or repeat words to yourself in order to remember them. Words are processed in working memory by how they sound ZZLZZKL:ZKK^]LL}] _ZL}]L2: Visuospatial sketchpad processes visual information such as objects features and where they are located. Example J you see a dog as you are walking. Visuospatial sketchpad helps you keep track of where the dog is and if it is the type of dog that needs to be carefully tracked. www.notesolution.com
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