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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Emotion refers to feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes and cognitive
beliefs.
Moods are diffuse and long-lasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupt thought and
behavior.
Stress is defined as a pattern of behavioral and physiological responses that match or exceed an
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Health psychology is the field of psychology concerned with the events that affect physical well-being. It
is concerned with how people remain healthy, when they become ill, and what they can do to regain
their health.
b/c infants cant talk, they have to communicate w/ nonverbal action and emotional expressions. Birth t
infant is capable of showing joy, interest, disgust, and pain. 2 months t anger & sadness, 6 months t
fear.
Lower half of face may be more important that upper half in communicating emotion. The mouth better
conveys emotion than eyes, especially for positive effect.
New guinea natives t able to identify emotions seen in photos fairly well although agreement was not
quite so high as in other cultures t perception of emotion is influenced by cultural upbringing
Gen. cross-cultural congruence in identification of some facial expressions, most strongly for happiness
and least strongly for fear and disgust.
Display rules t govern how and when emotions are exhibited. These rules are learned via socialization
and dictate which emotions are suitable to a given situation.
There are gender differences in display rules that guide emotional expression particularly for smiling and
crying.
When ppl are in good mood, they tend to use heuristic thinking, which allows them to make decisions
more quickly and efficiently.
Increased dopamine levels mediate the effects of positive effect on cognitive tasks. Positive affect leads
to higher levels of dopamine production, which subsequently leads to heightened activation of
dopamine receptors in other brain areas, which appears to be crucial for the advantageous cognitive
effects of positive effect
Risk judgments are strongly influenced by current feelings, and when cognitions and emotions are in
conflict, emotions typically have more impact on decisions.
The affect-as-information theory- people use their current emotional state to make judgements and
appraisals, even if they do not know the source of their moods. If people are made aware of the source
of their mood, their feelings no longer influence their judgments .
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Somatic marker theory t most self-regulatory actions and decisions are affected by the bodily reactions,
called somatic markers, that arise from contemplating their outcomes. People with famage to frontal
lobes cant use past outcomes to regulate future behavior.
Emotional info captures attention t emotional stroop task t cognitive processes are biased toward
emotional stimuli t words that are emotionally arousing are more difficult to override than neutral
words.
Emotion lessens attentional blink t 15 words shown, must remember the ones in green, harder to
remember the second green word if they are presented right after each other. Happens b/c attention
was focused on the first word.
Link between emotionality and memory - remember/know procedure t participants are asked about
their recognition of an item from a previous trial. They state whether they have a feeling that the item is
familiar, which is a know judgment, or whether their recollection of the item is accompanied by sensory,
semantic or emotional detail which is a remember judgment.
Beta blockers that are normally used to control blood pressure impair the ability to recognize emotional
expressions, perhaps b/w blocking norepinephrine interferes with emotional processing. Suggests that
administering drugs that block norepinephrine might help prevent the development of PTSD.
Anxiety t alarm function t motivates ppl to behave according to group norms
Guilt t negative emotional state associated with anxiety, tension, and agitation. Ptorottypical guilt
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Guilt protexts and strengthens interpersonal relationships through:
- Keeping people from doing things that would harm their relationships
- Encouraging behaviours that strengthen relationships
- Displays of guilt show that people care about their partners, reaffirming social bonds
- Guilt is an influence tactic that can be used to manipulate the behavior of others.
All negative emotions show considerable genetic influence (evidence by higher concordance rates for
identical twins), but guilt is unique and highly influenced by social environment.
w/ age =, influence of guilt of a shared environment became stronger, evidence of genetic influence
disappeared. parental warmth is associated with greater guilt in children.
Embarrassment is a naturally occurring state that usually occurs following social events such as
violations of cultural norms, loss of physical poise, teasing, and self-image threats
Individuals who look embarrassed after a transgression elicit more sympathy, forgiveness, amusement,
and laughter from onlookers.
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Subjective experience - - the feeling state that accompanies emotions
Physical changes are also considered an integral part of an emotion (ex. Increased heart rate)
Cognitive appraisal t }o[s beliefs and understanding about why they feel the way they feel.
Emotions are phenomenological, meaning we experience them subjectively.
Alexithymia - disorder in which people do not experience the subjective component of emotions. Elliot
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centers that interpret emotions.
Primary emotions - evolutionarily adaptive, shared across cultures, and associated w specific bioloigical
or physical states. Include anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness, surprise, contempt
Secondary emotions t blends of primary emotions, they include remorse, guilt, submission, and
anticipation.
Circumplex model t emotions are arranged in a circle around the intersections of two core dimensions
of affect. Emotions can be mapped according to valence, or degree of pleasantness/unpleasantness, and
their activation, which is the level of arousal or mobilization of energy.
Positive activation - positive affect, negative activation t unpleasant effect
Positive activation states are associated with an increase in dopamine and that negative activation
states are associated with an increase in norepinephrine, which supports the idea that positive and
negative effect are independent.
James langue theory of emotion t emotion is a result of perceiving patterns of bodily responses
If you mold the facial muscles to mimic an emotional state, you activate the associated emotion
Facial feedback hypothesis t facial expressions trigger the experience of emotions, not the other way
around.
Cannon-bard theory of emotion- info from emotion-producing stimulus is processed in subcortical
structures, causing experience of 2 separate things at roughly the same time: emotion and physical
reaction
Two factor theory of emotion t situation evokes both a physiological response and a cognitive
interpretation or emotion label,
Emotion can be mistakenly attributed to something that did not actually cause the arousal.
Misattribution of arousal is a term used when an emotion label is derived from the wrong source. Bridge
experiment t scary bridge would produce arousal that could be misattributed to the interviewer.
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Description
Emotion refers to feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes and cognitive beliefs. Moods are diffuse and long-lasting emotional states that influence rather than interrupt thought and behavior. Stress is defined as a pattern of behavioral and physiological responses that match or exceed an }2L]ZK[Z]o]]Z: Health psychology is the field of psychology concerned with the events that affect physical well-being. It is concerned with how people remain healthy, when they become ill, and what they can do to regain their health. bc infants cant talk, they have to communicate w nonverbal action and emotional expressions. Birth J infant is capable of showing joy, interest, disgust, and pain. 2 months J anger & sadness, 6 months J fear. Lower half of face may be more important that upper half in communicating emotion. The mouth better conveys emotion than eyes, especially for positive effect. New guinea natives J able to identify emotions seen in photos fairly well although agreement was not quite so high as in other cultures J perception of emotion is influenced by cultural upbringing Gen. cross-cultural congruence in identification of some facial expressions, most strongly for happiness and least strongly for fear and disgust. Display rules J govern how and when emotions are exhibited. These rules are learned via socialization and dictate which emotions are suitable to a given situation. There are gender differences in display rules that guide emotional expression particularly for smiling and crying. When ppl are in good mood, they tend to use heuristic thinking, which allows them to make decisions more quickly and efficiently. Increased dopamine levels mediate the effects of positive effect on cognitive tasks. Positive affect leads to higher levels of dopamine production, which subsequently leads to heightened activation of dopamine receptors in other brain areas, which appears to be crucial for the advantageous cognitive effects of positive effect Risk judgments are strongly influenced by current feelings, and when cognitions and emotions are in conflict, emotions typically have more impact on decisions. The affect-as-information theory- people use their current emotional state to make judgements and appraisals, even if they do not know the source of their moods. If people are made aware of the source of their mood, their feelings no longer influence their judgments . www.notesolution.com
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