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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 12 t Personality
Personality refers to characteristics, emotional responses, thoughts and behaviours that are relatively
stable over time and across circumstances
Personality psychologists study the basic processes that influence the development of personality on
many levels of analysis: influence of culture, learning, bio, and cog factorsÆtry to understand whole
persons
Personality trait is a characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across
circumstances
Gord}voo}(]v]]}v}(}vo]ÇW^ZÇvu]}Pv]}vÁ]Z]vZ]v]À]µo}(Z}
ÇZ}ZÇ]oÇuZu]vZ]Z]]ZÀ]}µvZ}µPZ[
OrganizationÆ personality is not just a list of traits but a coherent whole
DynamicÆ the organized whole is dynamic; it is goal seeking, sensitive to context and adaptive to
environment
Psychosocial systemsÆ personality also arises from basic biological processes
Psychodynamic theory is the Freudian theory that unconscious forces such as wishes and motives
influence behaviour
Psychic forces at play are called instinctsÆ the energy that promotes pleasure seeking is called libido
&µ[d}}PZ]oD}o~}(ZoÀo}(}v]}µvV
1. Conscious level t ppl are aware of thoughts
2. Preconscious level t content not currently in awareness, but could be brought into awareness
3. Unconscious t wishes, desires and motives that are associated w/ conflict, anxiety; cannot be
retrieved easily
Psychosexual stages According to Freud, the developmental stages that correspond to the posit of
satisfaction of libidinal urges
1. Oral Stage
2. Anal Stage
3. Phallic stage
4. Latency period
5. Genital Stage
Oedipus Complex Æin boys, desire for an exclusive relationship w/mother (of the opposite sex); rivalry
with parent of same sex (father)
Impact on Personality? Some ppl become fixated on a particular stage during which they have received
excessive parental restriction or indulgence
Eg. Fixation at oral stage leads to oral personality; ppl continue to seek pleasure via mouth i.e. smoking
www.notesolution.com
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of consciousness
1. Id t in psychodynamic theory, the component of personality that is completely submerged in
the unconscious and operates according to the pleasure principle
2. Superego t the internalization of societal and parental standards of conductÆdevelops during
phallic stage and is a rigid structure of morality/human conscious
3. Ego t the component of personality that tries to satisfy the wishes of the id while being
responsive to the dictates of the superegoÆ works according to rationality principle
Defence Mechanisms Æ unconscious mental strategies the mind uses to protect itself from conflict and
distress (conflicts between the id and superego which lead to anxiety)
Humanistic approaches Æ approaches to studying personality that emphasize personal experience and
belief systems , and propose that ppl seek personal growth to fulfill their human potential (Carl Rogers)
Emphasizes subjective human experience, or phenomenology +views each person as inherently good
Self-µo]}v]Zµo]uP}oPXDo}Á[Z}Ç}(u}]À]}v
Martin Seligman (see video) is a clinical psychologist that launched the positive psychology
movementÆscientific study of faith, values, creativity, courage and hope
Broaden-and-build theoryÆpositive emotions prompt ppl to consider novel solutions to their problems
which help resilient ppl to cope effectively with setbacks or negative life experiences
Personality types are discrete categories based on global personality characteristics
Trait approach is an approach to studying personality that that focuses on the extent to which
individuals differ in personality dispositions such as sociability, cheerfulness etc
ÆImplicit personality theory refers to our tendency to assume that personality traits go together and
therefore make predictions about o}vZ]}(u]v]uoÀ]vPX/v}À}v[P}}]U
read books, and are sensitive
Hans Eyenseck proposed a hierarchical model of personality
Super ordinate traitsÆ introversion-extraversion; emotional stability, psychoticism
Five-factor theory Æ the idea that personality can be described using 5 traits: openness to experience,
conscientiousness; extraversion; agreeableness; and neuroticism (acronym: OCEAN)
Each of the 5 factors is a high order trait comprising low-order traits that are related to each other
dZ^ld]_Æ associated w/ anti-social tendency; consists of:
1. Machiavellianism t behave in a cold/manipulative manner
2. Narcissism t feelings of superiority and dominance/entitlement
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 12 J Personality Personality refers to characteristics, emotional responses, thoughts and behaviours that are relatively stable over time and across circumstances Personality psychologists study the basic processes that influence the development of personality on many levels of analysis: influence of culture, learning, bio, and cog factorstry to understand whole persons Personality trait is a characteristic; a dispositional tendency to act in a certain way over time and across circumstances Gord}Loo}]L]]}L}Z}Lo]9^ZLK] }2L]]}L]Z]LZ]L]]o}Z}Z Z Z}ZZ] oZZKZZK]LZZ]Z Z ]Z] Z]}LZ}2Z[ Organization personality is not just a list of traits but a coherent whole Dynamic the organized whole is dynamic; it is goal seeking, sensitive to context and adaptive to environment Psychosocial systems personality also arises from basic biological processes Psychodynamic theory is the Freudian theory that unconscious forces such as wishes and motives influence behaviour Psychic forces at play are called instincts the energy that promotes pleasure seeking is called libido [[email protected]}}2Z] o,}o~}ZooZ} }LZ ]}ZLZZ8 1. Conscious level J ppl are aware of thoughts 2. Preconscious level J content not currently in awareness, but could be brought into awareness 3. Unconscious J wishes, desires and motives that are associated w conflict, anxiety; cannot be retrieved easily Psychosexual stages According to Freud, the developmental stages that correspond to the posit of satisfaction of libidinal urges 1. Oral Stage 2. Anal Stage 3. Phallic stage 4. Latency period 5. Genital Stage Oedipus Complex in boys, desire for an exclusive relationship wmother (of the opposite sex); rivalry with parent of same sex (father) Impact on Personality? Some ppl become fixated on a particular stage during which they have received excessive parental restriction or indulgence Eg. Fixation at oral stage leads to oral personality; ppl continue to seek pleasure via mouth i.e. smoking www.notesolution.com
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