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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 13 t Disorders of Mind and Body
Psychopathology is a disorder of the mind Æ origins in psychological turmoil and biological dysfunction; thoughts and
ZÀ]}µZuo]ÀZZvÀ]v~]vZÀ]v[]o}}oÇ(]vUvvuv]((vZ]vP]v
different countries)
Emil Kraepelin developed the first comprehensive categorization of mental illness
Contributions:
a) Not all patients suffered from the same disorder
b) Identified mental disorders based on groups of symptoms that occurred together
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) a handbook of clinical disorders used for diagnosing
psychopathology; 1st edition was heavily influenced by Freudian psychoanalytic theory
Multiaxial system is used in the DSM, and provides assessment along five axes describing important mental health
factors
Axis 1 t Clinical disorders that may be a focus of clinical attention eg. Schizophrenia, anxiety/sleep/mood disorders
Axis 2 t Mental retardation and personality disorders eg. Antisocial/ Paranoid/Borderline personality disorder
Axis 3 t General medical conditi}vZuÇoÀv}uvo]}PXvUWl]v}v[UZ]u[
Axis 4 t Psychosocial and enviro problems that might affect the diagnosis and prognosis of mental disorders eg.
Unemployment, divorce poverty)
Axis 5 t Global assessment of functioning (social, psychological and occupational) Rated on a scale from 1 to 100
representing danger of hurting self or others and 100 meaning superior functioning in a wide range of areas
Assessment /vÇZ}o}PÇUÆu]v]}v}(}v[uvo in order to diagnose possible mental illness
Goal of assessment is to make a diagnosis; the course and probable outcome is the prognosis; Mental Status Exam
}À]uvovZ}}(}v[ÇZ}o}P]ov]}v]vP
The clinical interview is the most common method of psychological assessment Æ tend to be unstructured; topics of
discussion vary as the interviewer probes different aspects of problems
Structured interviews use standardized questions that are asked in the same order each timeÆ how a person answers
each question is coded according to a predetermined formula eg. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID)
Another assessment method is neuropsychological testing; client is asked to perform a certain activity like copying a
picture, or drawing a design from memoryÆ each task requires certain ability such as planning, memory etc
Psychological testingÆ Objective vs. Projective tests; eg Beck Depression Inventory, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory (MMPI) which is the most widely used questionnaire for psychological assessment; has 10 clinical scales
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID); multiple personality disorder
Family systems model: a diagnostic model that considers symptoms within an individual as indicating problems within
the family eg. Genain quadruplets
Sociocultural model: a diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of the interaction between individuals
and their cultures eg. Schizophrenia more common amongst poor ppl, anorexia common among middle/high class
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Cognitive-behavioural approach: a diagnostic model that views psychopathology as the result of learned, maladaptive
cognitions; based on observable variables
Proponents of strict behaviourism argue that mental disorders are the result of classical and operant conditioning
Biological perspective Æ focuses on how physiological factors such as genetics contribute to mental illnesses; evidence
that mental disorders may arise from prenatal problems such as mental illness, malnutrition and exposure to toxins
Causes of mental illness = an interaction among multiple factors
Diathesis-model: A diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability is
coupled with a precipitating event; individual can have an underlying vulnerability or predisposition (diathesis) to a
mental disorder
According to legal system, a person is not responsible if, at the time of the crime, a mental disorder/defect led to an
inability to appreciate the criminality of the act or to an inability to conform to the requirements of the law ÆNotion of
insanity is not psychological, but legal
Anxiety disorders are characterized by the experience of excessive anxiety in the absence of real danger
Chronic anxiety causes a variety of somatic symptoms (due to arousal of autonomic system) eg. Sweating, dry mouth,
shallow breath, rapid pulse, high blood pressure etc; often exhibit restless and pointless motor behaviours
Phobia is an irrational fear of a specific object or situation
Generalized anxiety disorder is a diffused state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or event
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror
Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder marked by fear of being in situations in which escape may be difficult or impossible
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by frequent intrusive thoughts and compulsive
actions
Obsessions are recurrent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts, ideas or images; compulsions are particular acts that the
OCD patient feels driven to perform over and over againÆfears what they might do, or might have done
When presented with ambiguous or neutral situations, anxious individuals tend to perceive them as threatening
(cognitive component)
Situational + Biological factors play a role in the development of anxiety disorders
Etiology of OCD is at least partly genetic; caudate nucleus is dysfunctional in ppl with OCD; part of basal ganglia (region
involved in impulse suppression); caudate in OCD ppl is smaller and has structural abnormalitiesÆ dysfunctional
caudate nucleus allows impulses to enter consciousness
Environmental factors such as: streptococcal infection can cause symptoms of OCD in some young children
Agoraphobia may be the result of untreated panic attacks
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Description
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