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PSY100H1 (1,839)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Notes

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 14 t Treating Disorders of Mind and Body
Psychotherapy is the generic name given to formal psychological treatment eg. Cognitive-behavioural therapy
Biological therapies are treatments based on the medical approach to illness and disease eg. PsychopharmacologyÆthe
use of medications that affect brain and bodily functions; proven to be very effective in treating mental disorders
A limitation of biological therapy? Æ Very effective in the short term; in the long term they require person to continue
treatment
Psychotherapy is based on psychological principlesÆ aimed at changing patterns of thought and behaviour
Sigmund Freud; founding father in development of psych treatments Æbelieved that mental disorders are caused by
prior experiences eg. Traumatic experiences; developed method of psychoanalysis with Josef Breuer
Many techniques Æ eg. Free association: patient says whatever comes to mind; dream analysis: therapists interprets
hidden meanings of dreams
General goal of psychoanalysis is to increa]v[Áv}(Zµv}v]}µ}Z}ÁZÇ((]oÇ
functioning
Insight is the goal of some types of therapy; a patient[µvv]vP of his or her own psych processes
WÇZ}Çvu]}Z]}v}(&µ[]v]]oideas
Humanistic personality emphasizes personal experience and belief systems and the phenomenology of individuals
Humanistic therapy focuses on treating the person as a whole. Eg. Client-centred therapy developed by Carl Rogers
Client-centred therapy is an empathetic approach to therapy that encourages personal growth through greater self-
understanding; key ingredient is a safe/comfy setting for clients to access true feelings
Reflective listening Æ Z]o]v[}vv]v}}ZoZe person clarify his or her feelings
Motivational interviewingÆ happens over a very short period of time; valuable treatment for drug and alcohol abuse
Insight-based therapies consider maladaptive behaviour to be the results of an underlying problem vs. Behavioural
therapies see the behaviour itself as the problem
Basic Premise is that behaviour is learned and therefore can be unlearned using classical and operant conditioning
Behaviour modification is treatment in which principles of operant conditioning are used to reinforce desired behaviours
and ignore or punish unwanted behaviours
Exposure a behavioural therapy technique that involves repeated exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus or
situationÆ avoidance response is eventually extinguished
Systematic desensitization an exposure technique that pairs the anxiety-producing stimulus with relaxation techniques
Cognitive therapy is the treatment based on the idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviours and
emotions
Cognitive restructuring is a therapy that strives to help patients recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace
them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality; developed by Aaron Beck
www.notesolution.com
Rational emotive-theory (Albert Ellis)Æ therapists act as teachers who explain and demonstrate more adaptive ways of
thinking and behaving
Both therapies assume that maladaptive behaviour results from individual belief systems/ways of thinking, rather than
from objective conditions
Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) a therapy that incorporates techniques from behavioural therapy and cog therapy
to correct faulty thinking and change maladaptive behaviourÆ most common
Behavioural/cog-behavioural groups tend to be highly structured w/specific goals and techniques to modify thoughts
and behaviours of patients
Less structured groups tend to be focused on increasing insight/providing social support
Expressed emotion is a pattern of interactions that includes emotional over-involvement, critical comments, and
hostility directed toward a patient by family members eg. Schizophrenia; effects of family dynamics
Evidence shows supportive families lead to better therapy outcomes and reduces the chance of relapses
Biological therapies based on notion that mental illnesses result from abnormalities in neural and bodily processes
Psychotropic medications are drugs that affect mental processes; change brain neurochemistry; comes in three
categories
1. Anti-anxiety drugs (tranquilizers) Æ used for short-term treatment of anxiety
x Eg. Benzodiazepines: Xanax and Ativan
x Increase activity of GABA thus reducing anxiety and producing relaxation; induce drowsiness/highly
addictive
x Buspirone has fewer side effects; must be taken on a daily basis
2. AntidepressantsÆused to treat depression
x MAO inhibitors were the first antidepressants to be discovered
x Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that converts serotonin into another chem form
x i. MAO inhibitorsÆinhibit the action of MAO; more serotonin made available in synapses; raise
levels of norepinephrine and dopamine
x ii. Tricyclic antidepressants Æ inhibits reuptake of a number of different neurotransmitters thus
more of each transmitter is available in the synapse
x iii. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)Æ prolong the effects of serotonin in the synapse
eg. Prozac; can cause sexual dysfunction
3. AntipsychoticsÆ also known as neuroleptics; used to treat schizophrenia and other disorders that involve
psychosis; reduce delusions and hallucinations; blocks the effects of dopamine
Side effects are abundant eg. Tardive dyskinesiaÆ face and neck twitching
Clozapine is a new antipsychotic drug that does not bind only to dopamine but also to other neurotransmitters
Lithium is the most effective treatment for bipolar disorder
Anticonvulsants are drugs used to treat seizures, also used to regulate moods in bipolar disorder
Consumer reports allow patients to evaluate their mental health treatments Æhow effective?
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 14 J Treating Disorders of Mind and Body Psychotherapy is the generic name given to formal psychological treatment eg. Cognitive-behavioural therapy Biological therapies are treatments based on the medical approach to illness and disease eg. Psychopharmacologythe use of medications that affect brain and bodily functions; proven to be very effective in treating mental disorders A limitation of biological therapy? Very effective in the short term; in the long term they require person to continue treatment Psychotherapy is based on psychological principles aimed at changing patterns of thought and behaviour Sigmund Freud; founding father in development of psych treatments believed that mental disorders are caused by prior experiences eg. Traumatic experiences; developed method of psychoanalysis with Josef Breuer Many techniques eg. Free association: patient says whatever comes to mind; dream analysis: therapists interprets hidden meanings of dreams General goal of psychoanalysis is to increaZ]LZ[LZZ}ZZL }LZ ]}Z} ZZZZ}Z ]o functioning Insight is the goal of some types of therapy; a patient[ZLZL]L2 of his or her own psych processes 9Z Z}LK] } ZZ]}LZ}[Z]L]]oideas Humanistic personality emphasizes personal experience and belief systems and the phenomenology of individuals Humanistic therapy focuses on treating the person as a whole. Eg. Client-centred therapy developed by Carl Rogers Client-centred therapy is an empathetic approach to therapy that encourages personal growth through greater self- understanding; key ingredient is a safecomfy setting for clients to access true feelings Reflective listening Z]ZZ o]L[Z }L LZ]L}}ZoZe person clarify his or her feelings Motivational interviewing happens over a very short period of time; valuable treatment for drug and alcohol abuse Insight-based therapies consider maladaptive behaviour to be the results of an underlying problem vs. Behavioural therapies see the behaviour itself as the problem Basic Premise is that behaviour is learned and therefore can be unlearned using classical and operant conditioning Behaviour modification is treatment in which principles of operant conditioning are used to reinforce desired behaviours and ignore or punish unwanted behaviours Exposure a behavioural therapy technique that involves repeated exposure to an anxiety-producing stimulus or situation avoidance response is eventually extinguished Systematic desensitization an exposure technique that pairs the anxiety-producing stimulus with relaxation techniques Cognitive therapy is the treatment based on the idea that distorted thoughts produce maladaptive behaviours and emotions Cognitive restructuring is a therapy that strives to help patients recognize maladaptive thought patterns and replace them with ways of viewing the world that are more in tune with reality; developed by Aaron Beck www.notesolution.com
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