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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Michael Inzlicht

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Chapter 15 t Social Psychology and Emotions
Most important lesson of soc psych Æppl underestimate the power of situations in affecting human behaviour
We tend to overemphasize the importance of personality traits and underestimate the importance of situationÆ
fundamental attribution error
Attributions are explanations for behaviour
Social Psychology ]}vvÁ]ZZ}Áo]v(oµv}Zo[Z}µPZU(o]vPv]}vÆ how we perceive
ourselves, how we function in groups, why we hurt/help ppl/fall in love etc
Two important themes: 1) we tend to vastly underestimate the power of situation in shaping behaviour 2) A great deal
of mental activity occurs automatically and without conscious awareness or intent
Self- concept is the full story of knowledge that ppl have about themselves Self-awareness is a state in which the sense
of self ]Z}i}(v]}vV}µÁZvZ^/_Z]vl}µZ^u_
Shelley Duval and Robert Wicklund introduced the theory of objective self-awareness
Æ
self awareness leads ppl to act
in accordance with their personal values and beliefs
Tory Higgins self- discrepancy theory states that the awareness of differences between personal standards and goals
leads to strong emotions
Self- awareness is highly dependent on the normal development of the frontal lobes; damaged patients tend to be only
minimally self-reflective and seldom report daydreaming/other forms of introspectionÆ social/motivational
impairments that interfere with job performance
Cocktail party effect shows that info about self is processed deeply, thoroughly, and automatically
Self- schema (Hazel Markus): the cognitive aspect of the self-concept,, consisting of an integrated set of memories,
beliefs and generalizations about the self; helps filter info and consists of aspects of your personality that are important
to you
Since people act in accordance with their self-concepts, different situations elicit different behaviours because the
situation activated different aspects of the self-concept
When answering the question: Who am I? Ppl are likely to mention characteristics about themselves that are distinctive
Fundamentally different from OR inherently connected to other ppl?
PXtvv}^]vvv_vµ}v}u}µU]vP]v]À]µo]ÇUwhereas Easterners tend to be more
^]vvv_U]vPZ]v}(]vP}(}oo]À
Interdependent self-construals are self concepts determined largely by social rules and personal relationships eg. Kids
that are taught to follow group norms, be obedient to parents etc
Independent self-construals; a view of the self as separate from others, emphasizing self-reliance and the pursuit of
personal success (even at the expense of interpersonal relationships) (Western Attitude)
Self-esteem is the evaluative aspect of the self-concept; referring to whether ppl perceive themselves as worthy or
unworthy, good or badÆ o[u}]}vo}vZÇ}vuolÀoµ]((Z]]}µZuoÀ
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DvÇZ}]µuZo[o(-esteem is based on how they believe others perceive them, reflected appraisal (ppl
internalize the values and beliefs expressed by important ppl in their lives)--? When ppl reject, ignore, demean etc ppl
tend to have a low self-esteem
Approach to parenting Æ children are accepted and loved no matter what they do, but inappropriate behaviours are
corrected though punishment
Sociometer An internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection eg. Self-esteemÆ Mark Leary assumes that humans
have a fundamental need to belong (adaptive trait); ppl who belonged to social groups tend to survive and reproduce
(from an evolutionary standpoint); self-esteem monitors likelihood of social exclusion
Terror management theory says that self-esteem protects ppl from the horror associated with knowing that they will
eventually dieÆppl counter mortality fears by creating a sense of symbolic immortality through contributing to their
culture and upholding its values
Self-esteem is not necessarily a key determinant of success Æ self-esteem is only weakly related to objective life
outcomes
D}oZ]vl}(ZuoÀ]v(À}µouV^}]]À]o]}v_Æ overly favourable and unrealistic beliefs
Better-than-average effect most ppl describe themselves as better than avg in just about every possible way :
1. Ppl tend to overestimate their own skills, abilities, and competencies eg better-than-avg effect
2. Unrealistic perception of personal control over events
3. Unrealistically optimistic about personal futures
Achieved through self-evaluative maintenance, social comparisons and self-serving biases (automatic and unconscious
strategies that ppl use to maintain positive sense of self)
Self-evaluative maintenance ppl can feel threatened when someone close to them outperforms them on a task that is
personally relevantÆ causes ppl to exaggerate/publicize their connection to winners and to minimize/hide their
connection to losers
Social comparison the evaluation of our own actions, abilities, and beliefs by contrasting ZuÁ]Z}Zo[PXd}
see where you stand
In general, ppl with high self-esteem tend to make downward comparisons, contrasting themselves with ppl who are
deficient to them on relevant dimensions. Ppl with low self-esteem tend to make upward comparisons with those that
are superior to them
Self-serving bias when ppl with high self-esteem tend to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external
factors; ppl with self-esteem also assume criticism is associated with envy or prejudice
Attitude ]ZÀoµ]}v}(}iUÀvv]VvÆo]]~Á[Á}(Zu}]uo]]~Á}v[Àv
know or recognize them)
Direct experience of or exposure to things provides info that shapes our attitudes;
Robert Zajonc Æ mere exposure effect when ppl are exposed to unfamiliar items a few times or many times; greater
exposure to the item, and therefore greater familiarity with it caused ppl to have more positivelaboration likelihood
mehtode attitudes about the item
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Description
Chapter 15 J Social Psychology and Emotions Most important lesson of soc psych ppl underestimate the power of situations in affecting human behaviour We tend to overemphasize the importance of personality traits and underestimate the importance of situation fundamental attribution error Attributions are explanations for behaviour Social Psychology ]Z }L L]ZZ}o]LoL }Zo[ZZ}2ZZ7o]L2ZL ]}LZ how we perceive ourselves, how we function in groups, why we hurthelp pplfall in love etc Two important themes: 1) we tend to vastly underestimate the power of situation in shaping behaviour 2) A great deal of mental activity occurs automatically and without conscious awareness or intent Self- concept is the full story of knowledge that ppl have about themselves Self-awareness is a state in which the sense of self ]ZZ}E }L]}L8} ZZLZ^_Z]LlZ}Z^K_ Shelley Duval and Robert Wicklund introduced the theory of objective self-awareness self awareness leads ppl to act in accordance with their personal values and beliefs Tory Higgins self- discrepancy theory states that the awareness of differences between personal standards and goals leads to strong emotions Self- awareness is highly dependent on the normal development of the frontal lobes; damaged patients tend to be only minimally self-reflective and seldom report daydreamingother forms of introspection socialmotivational impairments that interfere with job performance Cocktail party effect shows that info about self is processed deeply, thoroughly, and automatically Self- schema (Hazel Markus): the cognitive aspect of the self-concept,, consisting of an integrated set of memories, beliefs and generalizations about the self; helps filter info and consists of aspects of your personality that are important to you Since people act in accordance with their self-concepts, different situations elicit different behaviours because the situation activated different aspects of the self-concept When answering the question: Who am I? Ppl are likely to mention characteristics about themselves that are distinctive Fundamentally different from OR inherently connected to other ppl? 2:JZLZL}^]LLL_L}L}K}Z7ZZZ]L2]L]]o]7whereas Easterners tend to be more ^]LLL_7ZZZ]L2Z]ZLZ}]L2} }oo ] Interdependent self-construals are self concepts determined largely by social rules and personal relationships eg. Kids that are taught to follow group norms, be obedient to parents etc Independent self-construals; a view of the self as separate from others, emphasizing self-reliance and the pursuit of personal success (even at the expense of interpersonal relationships) (Western Attitude) Self-esteem is the evaluative aspect of the self-concept; referring to whether ppl perceive themselves as worthy or unworthy, good or bad o[ZK}]}LoZ}LZZZ }LKolo] Z ]Z] Z}ZKZoZ www.notesolution.com
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