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Chapter 11

Summary of Chapter 11 (Attraction) , Also added Plaks' lecture stuff (only the stuff he mentioned)

Course Code
Jason Plaks

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-need to belonga motivation to bond with others in relationships that provide ongoing, positive interactions
-being ostracized (excluded or ignored) activates physical pain areas in the brain, i.e. ostracism is real pain”
-do humans and other animals have built in sociostats? (two experiments)
Latane & Werner (1978)
-Found that rats were more likely to approach other rats after a period of isolation and were less likely to approach other
rats after a long period of contact.
OConnor & Rosenblood (1996)
1) Asked college students to wear beepers for four days
2) Whenever beeper went off, subjects wrote down whether they were alone/with others and whether they wanted to be
alone/with others.
-Students were in the state they desired 2/3 of the time.
-When they werent, they were extremely likely to be in their desired state the next time they were beeped
-evidence of self-regulation…our built in sociostats?
What Leads to Friendship and Attraction? (Four Factors)
1) Proximity
-proximitygeographical nearness…it powerfully predicts liking
-not just geographical distance but also functional distance”—how often peoples paths cross
-interaction allows people to explore their similarities, sense one anothers liking and to perceive themselves as a
social unit
-repeated exposureinfatuation fixes on someone who has roughly similar characteristics and who reciprocates our

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Anticipation of Interaction
-merely anticipating interaction boosts liking
-study: women given ambiguous info about two other women (one of whome they expected to talk with
intimately), when asked which individual they liked more, they preferred the woman they expected to meet
-adaptive phenomenonanticipatory liking increases the chance of a rewarding relationship
Mere Exposure
-mere-exposure effectthe tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated more positively after the rater has been
repeatedly exposed to them
-eg. people prefer the letters that appear in their own names (or frequently in their own languages)
-seems counterintuitive, but not really…see unless the repetitions are incessant, liking will increase
-stronger effect when people perceive stimuli without awareness
-adaptive significancehelped our ancestors categorize people and things as either familiar and safe or unfamiliar and
possibly dangerous
-advertises and politicians exploit this
Moreland & Beach (1982)
-Selected four women to be confederates.
a) One woman: simply had her picture taken
b) 2nd woman: attend a large social psych class, much like this one, 5 times over the course of a semester
c) 3rd woman: -- 10 times over the course of the semester
d) 4th woman: -- 15 times over the course of the semester
-At the end of the semester, members of the class given the four photographs and asked to rate physical attractiveness,
popularity, honesty, intelligence.
-more exposure—more liked (The liked the woman that attended the class the most)
2) Physical Attractiveness
Attractiveness and dating

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-peoples physical attractiveness are moderately good predictors of how frequently they date
-men are more concerned with the attractiveness of their partner than women
-however in an actual speed dating experiment both women and men were equally influenced by their partner's
attractiveness. i.e. Attractiveness was the only factor that predicted whether they would like to see their speed
dating partner again and it was equally powerful for both sexes.
Matching Phenomenon
-tendency for men and women to choose partners those who are a good match” in attractiveness and other traits
-good match = equal to them
-doesnt have to be an exact match though…sometimes people can compensate for a lack of a certain quality (eg. beautify
substituted with a high income)
-asset-matching process—e.g an attractive young woman dating an older man of higher status
The Physical-attractiveness stereotype
-physical attractiveness isnt entirely related to sexual attractiveness
-even young children prefer to look at attractive faces
-physical-attractiveness stereotypethe presumption that physically attractive people possess other socially desirable
traits as well
-what is beautiful is good
-the effect of plastic surgery
-Michael Kalickhad students rate their impression so of 8 women based on profile photographs taken before or
after cosmetic surgery
-the women who had cosmetic surgery were rated to be more physically attractive, kinder, more sensitive,
more sexually warm, responsive, likeable etc
-first impressions
-physical appearance however does not always outrank other qualities
-attractiveness most affects first impressions
-attractive people tend to earn more
-even a .013 second exposure (too brief to actually make out a face) is enough to enable people to guess a faces
-attractive faces also prime positive processing
-is the stereotype accurate?
-to an extentthe result of SFPs
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