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Chapter 2

PSY220H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Planning Fallacy, Affective Forecasting, Learned Helplessness


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jason Plaks
Chapter
2

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Chapter 2: The Self in a Social World
“tud i Prieto Uiersit o studet’s eperiees at the uiersit positivity of their self presentations echoed
those of other students
Self concept: ho a perso asers Who a I proides a glipse of their self-concept (R hem places a strong role in
self-concept)
Self Schemas: beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information (ex; self-schema
perceiving self as overweight will affect how we perceive, remember, and evaluate other people and self)
Possible Selves: images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future (ex; seeing underemployment in future)
What determines self-concept?
1. Social Identity social definition of who you are (Race, religion, sex, major)
- when our social group is the majority think less versus if minority
2. Self-Comparison evaluating your abilities and opinions by comparing self to others
- study in which first and fourth year students read an article on a very talented and well achieved accountant before
reading the article, both first and fourth years had similar self-evaluations; when first and fourth year students read the
article and then evaluated self first years seems inspired but fourth ears’ self-evaluations dropped (role model did
not present hope); when we are around less good looking people, we feel pretty (Various examples in day to day life)
3. Success and failure after experiencing academic success e ork harder suess feeds self estee priiple
4. Other people’s judgements how others judge us can affect our sense of self; if perceived as gifted, may incorporate
such idea into self-concept; in society people tend to praise then criticise which can lead to self inflation (esp. in Western
Countries)
Self and Culture:
Individualism: concept of giving priority to oe’s own goals over group goals and defining oe’s identity in terms of
personal attributes rather than group attributes (commonly in western areas)
Independent self: construing ones identify as a unique individual with particular abilities, traits, values and dreams
Collectivism (Asian countries vs western): giving priority to the goals of oe’s groups and defining oe’s identity
accordingly
Interdependent self: ostruig oe’s idetit i relatio ith others (refer to image on page 44)
- Colletiist outries sa I less ofte
- Within any culture, individualism varies from person to person
- When Chinese persons were asked to think of their mother brain region associated with self was activated;
this region is only activated when thinking of self in Western individuals
- Interdependent selves do not have one self but many; self-with parents, self-at ork ad so forth…
Culture and cognition:
- Study in which individuals shown animated underwater scene Japanese recall 60 percent more background
info then Americans, and spoke more of relationships (Frog beside plant); Americans look more at the focal
object, such as a single big fish and less at surroundings
- Participants asked to choose pens Westerns tend to choose the uncommon colour more than Asians shows
differing cultural preference for uniqueness and conformity
Culture and self-esteem:
- Self-estee i olletiist ultures orrelates losel ith hat others thik of e ad  group; self-concept
in these cultures are malleable rather than stable Canadians versus Asians agree that the beliefs that you hold
about who you are remain the same across different activity domains
- When Japanese go to Western countries self-esteem increased
Self-knowledge:
- How much insight do we really have into what makes us happy or unhappy? Turns out we are BAD predictors of
what will make us happy
- Close friends and family tend to be good predictors of our behaviour (sometimes more than ourselves) this
can be in terms of money, relationships and so forth.
Planning fallacy: tendency to underestimate how long it will take to complete a task
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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