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Chapter 9

PSY220H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Ambivalent Sexism, In-Group Favoritism, Stereotype Threat


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune
Chapter
9

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Ch.9 Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
Prejudice:a negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very strongly
held
Discrimination: negative, harmful behaviour toward people based on their group
membership
Genocide: an attempt to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment
or murder
Aversive racism: a “modern” kind of prejudice held by people who do not consider
themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive,
but who nevertheless harbor some negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward
members of minority group.
Self-fulfilling prophecy: a process in which a perceiver’s expectancy about a target
person influences the perceiver’s behaviour toward the target person in such a way as
to elicit the expected actions from the target person (i.e target’s behaviour confirms the
perceiver’s stereotype or expectancy)
Subliminal priming procedures: a method of activating a schema or stereotype by
flashing words or pictures very briefly on a computer screen in front of a participant
Implicit Intergroup biases: distorted judgements about members of a group based on
a stereotype, which can occur without the person’s awareness.
Meta-stereotype: a person’s belief about the stereotype that outgroup members hold
concerning his or her own group
e.g. people who believe that their group is viewed negatively by an outgroup tend to
anticipate unpleasant interactions w/ members of that group
Scapegoat theory: a theory proposing that prejudice occurs because members of
dominant groups use discrimination against members of weak target groups to vent
their frustration and disappointment
Realistic group conflict theory: a theory proposing that when groups in society are
perceived to be competing with one another for resources, intergroup hostility can be
aroused, which leads to prejudice.
Integrated threat theory: a theory proposing that prejudice results from four types of
threats: realistic threats, symbolic threats, threats stemming from intergroup anxiety, and
threats arising from negative stereotypes
Sexism: prejudice discrimination directed against women because of their gender
Neosexism: a subtle form of sexism, which included beliefs that women are no longer
disadvantaged and antagonism toward women’s demand for better treatment
Ambivalent sexism inventory: a measure of stereotyped attitudes toward women,
which is composed of two dimensions, one positive and one negative: benevolent
sexism and hostile sexism.
Benevolent sexism: positive but paternalistic attitudes toward women
Hostile sexism: negative attitudes toward women who violate the traditional stereotype
of women

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Appearance self-esteem: An individual’s satisfaction with his or her physical looks
Personal-group discrimination discrepancy: the tendency for people to report that
they as individuals have experienced less negative treatment based on their group
membership than the average member of their group
Stereotype threat: the pressure experienced by individuals who fear that if they
perform poorly on a task, their performance will appear to confirm an unfavorable belief
about their group
Contact hypothesis: the idea that exposure to members of an outgroup will produce
more favourable attitudes toward that group
Jigsaw classroom: a method of a teaching designed to foster positive interracial
contact, which involves forming small, culturally diverse groups of student who are each
given one part of the material to be learned.
Colour-blind approach: the hypothesis that to reduce prejudice, people should be
encouraged to categorize other people as individual persons rather than as members of
groups.
Multiculturalism: the hypothesis that to reduce prejudice, different cultural groups
within a society should each maintain their own identity while simultaneously respecting
all other groups.
Superordinate goals: goals that can be achieved only be cooperating
Explicit Prejudice: Conscious feelings toward members of particular social groups
(what people report when we ask them how they feel about group “x”
Implicit Prejudice: Unconscious and automatic evaluations of members of particular
and social groups; not accessible via usual self-report methods (not aware)
Implicit Association Test(IAT): developed to test the relative strength of various
associations
taps implicit (automatic or unconscious) attitudes beyond the reach of usual self-report
measures
participants make a series of fast sorting decisions organized into blocks
Responses on incongruent and congruent trials are compared (Congruent: in line with
stereotype; Incongruent; opposes stereotype)
originally created to examine biases/prejudice for black people
criticism: explores your awareness of prejudice and not your level, and also reinforces
stereotype
presence of black people may lower biases in experiment
Salience: evidence that stereotypes can form from purely cognitive processes, without
emotion or motivation
-Stereotypes---cognition
-Prejudice---affect
-Discrimination---behaviour
Why Prejudice exists:
Categorization: natural human tendency to group objects
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