Textbook Notes (381,101)
CA (168,356)
UTSG (11,042)
PSY (2,994)
PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter

CH2 Textbook Notes

7 Pages
64 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
CHAPTER 2 THE METHODS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
The Scientific Method
- social comparison experiment conducted by Lockwood and Kunda (1997)
- hypothesized that exposure to information about a successful person would make
participants feel negatively about themselves
- also predicted other participants would feel better about themselves
- critical factor is whether people think they themselves have the potential to be very
successful
Theories and Hypotheses
- theories=explanations, hypotheses=predictions
- theory is a scientists explanation of why an event or outcome occurs, identifies underlying
causes of something the scientist observed
- typically focus on psychological processes to explain events
- hypotheses are specific predictions about what should occur if a theory is valid, provide a
means for testing the theory
- most theories build on period scientific work, involve applying a concept/principle from one
field, rely on scientists intuitive analyses of problems
- Melvin Lerner (1977, 1980) just world theory: humans need to believe that the world is a fair
and just place
- we are all motivated to believe that people receive what they deserve, hard work &
honesty brings rewards, laziness & dishonesty dont pay
- if we didnt believe in a fair world, we would fear our own efforts might not pay off
- possibility is anxiety-provoking so we protect our belief in a just world
- as a theory, explains why people want to believe in a just world
- provides basis for hypotheses e.g. people will blame victims whose suffering is expected
to continue
Translating Theoretical Ideas into Testable Questions: Operational Definitions
- conceptual terms: abstract ideas or concepts that cant be observed directly
- researchers must translate abstract ideas into concrete, objective measures
- operational definition of a concept is a specific, observable response that will be used to
measure the concept
-measures most common in social psychology: self-report measure, behavioural measures
Self-Report Measures
- easiest strategy is to ask people directly
- makes sense so long as a concept is something that people are able and willing to report
- researchers must be careful to express questions clearly
- subtle changes in phrasing/wording can affect responses
www.notesolution.com
- e.g. physicians interviewing patients must avoid leading questions to diagnose
accurately, should ask patient to describe symptoms rather than inadvertently focusing
patients attention on particular sensations
- sometimes assumption that people are able and willing to report a concept is not valid
- e.g. people may not be aware of some internal states (unconscious motives) or forgotten
memories
- socially desirable responding: giving answers that portrays respondent favourably
- strategies to limit social desirability motives: avoid phrasing that make some responses more
socially desirable than others, obtain a measure of participants tendencies to respond in a
desirable manner on all measure
Behavioural Measures
- measure concepts by observing individuals behaviours
- often unobtrusive measures, participants dont realize that the measure is being taken
- disadvantage: can be difficult or time-consuming to obtain, impossible for some concepts
- e.g. require complex cover story, help of confederates
- e.g. measure emotional responses to a past event, measure thoughts in response to a
persuasive message
- goal is to measure the concept accurately
- psychometrics: understanding and refining methods for psychological measurement
Reliability
- the consistency or stability of scores on a measure
- a reliable measure produces consistent scores, is free from “random”/unexplained fluctuations
- consistency over time, produces stable scores for the same object on repeated uses
- consistency across judges, object receives similar scores from different judges
Validity
- the extent to which scores on the measure really represent the underlying concept they are
intended to represent
- commonly demonstrated by showing scores on a measure correspond well to scores on other
related measures
- other measures assess some aspects of the same concepts, showing overlap with social
measure suppose the validity of that measure
- e.g. to establish validity of a measure of attitudes towards religion, researcher shows
correspondence to score of how often one attended a religious service
Correlational Research
- researchers measure two or more concepts and see whether concepts are associated with
one another, focus on whether measures are associated with one another
- when two measures are correlated, means the scores on the measures are systematically
related, as scores on one measure change, scores on the other measure also change
- when two measures are correlated, the cause of this association cant be known with certainty
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
CHAPTER 2 THE METHODS OF SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY The Scientific Method - social comparison experiment conducted by Lockwood and Kunda (1997) - hypothesized that exposure to information about a successful person would make participants feel negatively about themselves - also predicted other participants would feel better about themselves - critical factor is whether people think they themselves have the potential to be very successful Theories and Hypotheses - theories=explanations, hypotheses=predictions - theory is a scientists explanation of why an event or outcome occurs, identifies underlying causes of something the scientist observed - typically focus on psychological processes to explain events - hypotheses are specific predictions about what should occur if a theory is valid, provide a means for testing the theory - most theories build on period scientific work, involve applying a conceptprinciple from one field, rely on scientists intuitive analyses of problems - Melvin Lerner (1977, 1980) just world theory: humans need to believe that the world is a fair and just place - we are all motivated to believe that people receive what they deserve, hard work & honesty brings rewards, laziness & dishonesty dont pay - if we didnt believe in a fair world, we would fear our own efforts might not pay off - possibility is anxiety-provoking so we protect our belief in a just world - as a theory, explains why people want to believe in a just world - provides basis for hypotheses e.g. people will blame victims whose suffering is expected to continue Translating Theoretical Ideas into Testable Questions: Operational Definitions - conceptual terms: abstract ideas or concepts that cant be observed directly - researchers must translate abstract ideas into concrete, objective measures - operational definition of a concept is a specific, observable response that will be used to measure the concept -measures most common in social psychology: self-report measure, behavioural measures Self-Report Measures - easiest strategy is to ask people directly - makes sense so long as a concept is something that people are able and willing to report - researchers must be careful to express questions clearly - subtle changes in phrasingwording can affect responses www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit