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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Notes from Textbook

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune

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Chapter 7: Attitude Change
Cognitive Dissonance Theory: convincing ourselves that our decisions or actions are justified
Awareness of dissonant cognitions produces an unpleasant state of arousal , which people are
motivated to reduce
oBy changing one of the dissonant cognitions, adding consonant cognitions, or changing the
importance of one or more of the relevant cognitions
Dissonant cognitions: beliefs that are inconsistent with one another, such as I smoke and smoking
causes cancer”
Consonant cognitions: support one another (i.e. I eat apples” + apples are good for me”)
Induced compliance paradigm: investigates dissonance that results from counterattitudinal behaviour
oInduce participants to behave in a way that is inconsistent with their attitudes
oTo reduce dissonance, participants often change their attitude in the direction of their behaviour
Boring task told to tell someone that task is fun; rated tasks as pretty fun
Given $1 or $20 to tell person that task is fun; $1 liked it more because there was no
other justification whereas $20 liked it the same as those who did not receive money
because receiving a large sum of money was justifiable
Uni students writing about increasing tuition later claim to want an increase
Grasshopper eating why did I just eat this? Because I like it, not because of a DB.
Effort justification paradigm: investigates dissonance that results from wasted effort
oLeads participants to incur some costs for a goal that might not be worthwhile
oTo reduce dissonance, participants often increase the perceived value of the goal
Joining sex group: REALLY embarrassing shizz listen to boring group discussion 
rated interest in group waaay higher than mildly embarrassing shizz and control group
Free choice paradigm: investigates the dissonance that results from making a decision or choice,
which is referred to as postdecisional dissonance
oChoose between two or more alternatives
oTo reduce dissonance, participants increase the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and
decrease the perceived attractiveness of the rejected alternative a pattern of re-evaluation that
is termed spreading of the alternatives.
Women rank consumer items women who were given high dissonance condition (two
items of similar ranking) ranked their chosen item higher (and the alternative lower) in
the second survey
Self-perception theory: people change their attitudes after counterattitudinal behaviour because they
logically infer their attitudes from their behaviour believe that there was no arousal when telling the lie
in boring task lie; (no arousal participants take arousal inhibitors still induced dissonance)
Impression management theory: people in dissonance experiments may not change their attitudes at
all, but simply report new attitudes so they will not appear inconsistent to the experimenter
(experimenter different at start and beginning and results the same)
Self-affirmation theory: counterattitudinal behaviour induces attitude change because it threatens
peoples sense of self-worth, and they can reduce the threat by re-affirming an important value
Hypocrisy paradigm: participants appear to be arguing for prosocial behaviour but are called out on
behaviour that was not always prosocial in the past therefore they try to get rid of the discrepancy and
act in an according way (i.e. buying condoms after the condom video)
Preference for consistency (PFC): desire for predictability and consistency within their own responses
oPeople high in PFC exhibit dissonance effects more strongly
oWrite essay about increase in tuition = ; high PFC + no-choice = more favourable attitudes;
low PFC equal attitude for no-choice or choice
Persuasive communications: people that try to convince others to adopt a particular position
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Description
Chapter 7: Attitude Change Cognitive Dissonance Theory: convincing ourselves that our decisions or actions are justified Awareness of dissonant cognitions produces an unpleasant state of arousal , which people are motivated to reduce o By changing one of the dissonant cognitions, adding consonant cognitions, or changing the importance of one or more of the relevant cognitions Dissonant cognitions: beliefs that are inconsistent with one another, such as I smoke and smoking causes cancer Consonant cognitions: support one another (i.e. I eat apples + apples are good for me) Induced compliance paradigm: investigates dissonance that results from counterattitudinal behaviour o Induce participants to behave in a way that is inconsistent with their attitudes o To reduce dissonance, participants often change their attitude in the direction of their behaviour Boring task told to tell someone that task is fun; rated tasks as pretty fun Given $1 or $20 to tell person that task is fun; $1 liked it more because there was no other justification whereas $20 liked it the same as those who did not receive money because receiving a large sum of money was justifiable Uni students writing about increasing tuition later claim to want an increase Grasshopper eating why did I just eat this? Because I like it, not because of a DB. Effort justification paradigm: investigates dissonance that results from wasted effort o Leads participants to incur some costs for a goal that might not be worthwhile o To reduce dissonance, participants often increase the perceived value of the goal Joining sex group: REALLY embarrassing shizz listen to boring group discussion rated interest in group waaay higher than mildly embarrassing shizz and control group Free choice paradigm: investigates the dissonance that results from making a decision or choice, which is referred to as postdecisional dissonan
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