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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 textbook notes

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune

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Chapter 13: Relationships
Attraction
Propinquity
Dyadic relationships: relationships that develop between two people
oThe 1st close dyadic relationship is the one formed between an infant and a
primary caregiver (mother)
Research on interpersonal attraction shows that birds of a feather flock together;
i.e. similar people like each other
Propinquity: nearness or proximity in physical space, which creates the
opportunity to meet another person
oPhysical propinquity seems to play major role in attraction and
interpersonal communication
Likelihood of meeting people depends on spatial ecology
The group found that closer neighbours were closer friends and that
the people that were next to the stairs had the most friends.
Functional distance
Both liking and disliking can be associated with close proximity
Similarity
Attitude-similarity effect –most attractive when people are similar
Students found strangers that had similar attitudes as themselves
more attractive
Repulsion hypothesis- others are less attractive if dissimilar
Self-disclosure: when people reveal info about their personal life and experiences
Satisfaction with the friendship was positively correlated both with how
much respondents self-disclosed to the friend and how much the friend
self-disclosed to respondents
Opener scale- measures individual differences in peoples ability to get other
people to open up
The high disclosers were willing to reveal intimate personal info to
anyone but the low disclosers were more comfortable revealing intimate
personal details to partners who had good rather than poor opener abilities
Facial beauty
Attractive males: prominent cheek bones a large chin, wide smile, non deviated
eye height
Attractive females: large eyes, small nose and chin, prominent, high eyebrows,
large pupils, and large smile
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For both males and females having small eyes suggests that your more
masculine, less nurturance, less empathy than people with larger eyes
Faces are judged more attractive the closer they are to the average of the
population of faces
Bodily features
Waist to hip ratio: less than 1 in females are attractive and in males its usually
close to 1
Associated with reproductive success
Found that males having a ratio closer to 1 showed dominance and were
rated as more leader-like and that they produced more testosterone
Cultural variation depends on media, traditions : weight, height, body odor
Evolutionary Significance
Certain cultures where food supply is scare it is found that fatter people are more
attractive and in our society thinner people represent healthier individuals since
food is everywhere
Attractive female faces = have fewer health problems
Attractive male faces = wealthier backgrounds
What is beautiful is good
In Korea the more attractive people were judged the higher in integrity
and concern for others they had.
Friendship
Friendship among children
Sociometric rating process: when two individuals consider each other as a friend
As children continue to remain open with each other they will establish close
friendships
Popularity – avoid drawing attention towards themselves, rarely disrupt others
Unpopularity
oRejected-aggression children: unpopular due to aggressive behavior
oRejected- withdrawn children: unpopular due to acting awkward around
people
The rejected children were often aggressive, the popular children
weren’t; At the start both the popular n rejected children engaged in
the same amount of conversations, but gradually the popular ones
had 2x as much social conversation by the end of the 2 weeks
When popular boys were into a new group with rejected kids, the
new group again established those boys as popular such as before
Peer influence
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Description
Chapter 13: Relationships Attraction Propinquity Dyadic relationships: relationships that develop between two people o The 1 close dyadic relationship is the one formed between an infant and a primary caregiver (mother) Research on interpersonal attraction shows that birds of a feather flock together; i.e. similar people like each other Propinquity: nearness or proximity in physical space, which creates the opportunity to meet another person o Physical propinquity seems to play major role in attraction and interpersonal communication Likelihood of meeting people depends on spatial ecology The group found that closer neighbours were closer friends and that the people that were next to the stairs had the most friends. Functional distance Both liking and disliking can be associated with close proximity Similarity Attitude-similarity effect most attractive when people are similar Students found strangers that had similar attitudes as themselves more attractive Repulsion hypothesis- others are less attractive if dissimilar Self-disclosure: when people reveal info about their personal life and experiences Satisfaction with the friendship was positively correlated both with how much respondents self-disclosed to the friend and how much the friend self-disclosed to respondents Opener scale- measures individual differences in peoples ability to get other people to open up The high disclosers were willing to reveal intimate personal info to anyone but the low disclosers were more comfortable revealing intimate personal details to partners who had good rather than poor opener abilities Facial beauty Attractive males: prominent cheek bones a large chin, wide smile, non deviated eye height Attractive females: large eyes, small nose and chin, prominent, high eyebrows, large pupils, and large smile www.notesolution.com
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