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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 textbook notes

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune

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Chapter 9:
Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
Prejudice is an attitude, discrimination is a behaviour
Stereotype an individuals beliefs that members of a group share particular
attributes
Prejudice and Discrimination
Old-fashioned, blatant racial discrimination has been replaced by more subtle and
ambiguous discrimination
oAversive racism people that dont consider themselves as prejudice and
who try to find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive
When the applicants qualifications were weak, participants
recommended the white applicant more often than the Black
applicant, the effect in 1999 (77% vs 40%) was just as strong as the
effect in 1989 (75% vs 50%)
oTo assess racial attitude you could use: IAT (implicit association test) or
facial EMG.
Stereotypes: cognitive sources of prejudice and discrimination
Stereotypes guide attention
It was found that if the defendant had a Hispanic name evidence for
him being guilty is judged in more detail than if it was a white
persons name
Ramirez Vs Johnson
Essentially the minority group is judged more harshly than a
member of the majority group, based on exactly the same
information
Stereotypes guide interpretation
It was found that participants were faster to judge correctly that black
targets were armed than white targets
It was found that participants were slower to judge correctly that
black targets were unarmed than white targets
Errors for killing unarmed blacks is higher than whites
www.notesolution.com
Real-life prediction is that unarmed black men are more likely
to be shot in error by officers than unarmed white men
Black children picked the white dolls over the black dolls and
researchers believe its due to self- hatred or cultural stereotype
that white skin is more valued than black skin
Self-fulfilling prophecies
oThe perceiver has acted in a way as to make his or her own prophecy come
true
Schizophrenics are hostile because you act nervous and weird around
them
White applicants were treated: longer interview, more eye contact,
forward body lean
Black applicants were treated: shorter interview, less eye contact,
backward body lean
It was then asked by a group of judges of who was more
successful in getting the job they said the description of how
the white applicants were treated
Activating the stereotype increased the likelihood that ambiguous
actions would be interpreted as hostile, presumably because hostility
was part of the stereotype
oImplicit intergroup bias
Refers to distorted judgements about members of a group based
on a stereotype, which can occur w/o the persons awareness
Low-prejudiced white participants showed no evidence whatsoever of
implicit intergroup bias against blacks but high-prejudiced white
participants did have bias
This bias can be removed by deliberate attempts to be open minded
oMeta-stereotype
Refers to a persons belief about the stereotype that outgroup
members hold concerning his or her own group
It was found that people who believe that their group is viewed
negatively by an outgroup tend to anticipate unpleasant interactions
with members of that outgroup
Emotional sources of prejudice and discrimination
www.notesolution.com
Scapegoat theory
oFrustration
oWhen members of a dominant group use discrimination against members of
a weak group to vent their frustration and disappointment
Ex. As the cost of cotton decrease the lynchings against black men
increased during the time of slavery
Ex. The Nazi targeted the Jews for Germanys economic failures and
depression
Realistic group conflict theory
oCompetition
oWhen groups in society are perceived to be competing with one another for
resources, intergroup hostility can be aroused, which leads to prejudice
Ex. Immigrants taking away jobs from citizens of the country
Ex. Disputed between countries over land
Ex. 11yr old boys that were camping and that were told they would
get a nice prize at the end were engaged in more discriminatory
behaviours such as stealing, swearing against the outgroup
Social identity theory
oSelf-enhancement motivation
oFeeling superior to another person can be gratifying because it indirectly
confirms ones own worth
Ex. When their basketball team won the game the participants
reported higher self-esteem and made more optimistic predictions
about their own future performance than when their team lost the
game
Ex. A group of grade 3 yrs kids were test by saying that the first day
blue-eyed kids are superior to brown-eyed kids and on the 2nd day it
was reversed
From this they found that each day, the children in the
superior group changed dramatically from normal
personalities, becoming arrogant, insulting and condescending
to children in the inferior group. They noted that it was as if
the children really wanted to feel and act in this superior
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 9: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination Prejudice is an attitude, discrimination is a behaviour Stereotype an individuals beliefs that members of a group share particular attributes Prejudice and Discrimination Old-fashioned, blatant racial discrimination has been replaced by more subtle and ambiguous discrimination o Aversive racism people that dont consider themselves as prejudice and who try to find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive When the applicants qualifications were weak, participants recommended the white applicant more often than the Black applicant, the effect in 1999 (77% vs 40%) was just as strong as the effect in 1989 (75% vs 50%) o To assessracial attitude you could use: IAT (implicit association test) or facial EMG. Stereotypes: cognitive sources of prejudice and discrimination Stereotypes guide attention It was found that if the defendant had a Hispanic name evidence for him being guilty is judged in more detail than if it was a white persons name Ramirez Vs Johnson Essentially the minority group is judged more harshly than a member of the majority group, based on exactly the same information Stereotypes guide interpretation It was found that participants were faster to judge correctly that black targets were armed than white targets It was found that participants were slower to judge correctly that black targets were unarmed than white targets Errors for killing unarmed blacks is higher than whites www.notesolution.com
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