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Chapter 9

Chapter 9

23 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune

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Chapter 9: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
-Prejudice: a negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very
strongly held
Perceiver prejudges” the gargets
Positive and negative prejudice exists
Attitude
-Discrimination: negative, harmful behavior toward people based on their group
membership
Possible consequence of prejudice
Positive and negative discrimination exists; +ve called (reverse discrimination)
o+ve=special/preferential treatment to members of a group
ove=range in actions from avoiding to genocide (eliminate an ethnic
group through banishment or murder)
Behavior
-Stereotype: individuals beliefs that members of a group share particular
attributes
Positive and negative stereotypes exist
1. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION TODAY
-Blatant and overt discrimination is declining in Canada but it still exists
Discrimination=illegal
Equal access=mandatory policy
Social norms censure prejudice, making ppl less likely to express ve feelings
-Implicit attitudes: individuals automatic and often unconscious evaluations of a
target
Some people have negative implicit attitudes towards disadvantaged groups
nut are not consciously aware of these negative automatic responses
-Dovidio and Gaertner: old-fashioned blatant racial discrimination has been
replaced by more subtle and ambiguous discrimination; majority group members have
ambivalent or conflicted feelings toward minorities; new prejudice=aversive racism
www.notesolution.com
Aversive racism=modern kind of prejudice held by people who do not
consider themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation of being
prejudiced aversive, but who nevertheless harbor some negative beliefs and
hostile feelings toward members of minority groups
Aversive racists hypothesized to exhibit discriminations toward minorities
when the circumstances made negative treatment justifiable, thereby
providing an excuse for discrimination
Dovidio and Gaertner study: 2 samples of White Americans 1989 and 1999
Measure blatant prejudice: agreement w/ statements (i.e. “I would mind it if a
Black family moved next door to my home”)
oResult: less blatant prejudice from 1989 to 1999
Measure discriminatory behavior when circumstances provided an excuse:
evaluate candidates for peer-counseling program
oCandidate was either: White or Black; possessed strong, ambiguous or
weak qualifications
oResult:
When qualifications were strong/weak,@ both time periods
recommended him whether White or Black/ did not recommend
him whether White or Black
When qualifications were ambiguous, participants recommend
the white applicant more often than the Black applicant
(1989=75% vs. 50%; 1999=77% vs. 40%)
Result=more recent sample has less blatant prejudice, discrimination
continues to occur when the circumstances mask it
-Implicit Association Test (IAT): assesses respondents’ automatic, implicit
attitudes towards minority groups
Used b/c ppl are unwilling to admit or are unaware of ve feelings
-Facial EMG: used as a physiological measure of prejudice
2. STEREOTYPES: COGNITIVE SOURCES OF PREJUDICE AND
DISCRIMINATION
-Cognitive perspective: prejudice is the byproduct of normal human thinking
processes
Stereotypes (i.e. doctors are compassionate and hockey players are
aggressive)
Stereotypes qualify as one kind of schema
www.notesolution.com
oSchema: they allow us to sort objects into categories, to make
assumptions about those objects, and thereby to impose meaning and
predictability on our environment
We categorize people—assumptions are made quickly and effortlessly; allow
us to make rapid inferences about target person
2.1 Two Costs of Stereotypes: Oversimplification and Negativity
1. Oversimplification:
-We may assume too much uniformity or similarity within groups of people,
especially with respect to large collections (i.e. ethnic groups)
Outgroup homogeneity effect: tendency for perceivers to overestimate the
similarity within groups to which they do not belong
-While categories of inanimate objects are uniform but categories of humans are
not all uniform or predictable for every member within a large group (i.e. lawyers are not
always wealthy)
2. Negativity
-Even though some stereotypes, are +ve, others have an unfavorable tone as
they consist of negative traits (i.e. stereotypes of ethnic minorities)
-Why unfavorable?
Stereotypes refer to groups that are believed to be competing w/ the
perceivers group for desired resources
Bad moods elicit and intensify unfavorable stereotypes
oI.E. when in a bad mood, close-knit immigrants seems cliquish or
secretive
Unfamiliarity with members of targeted group and feel anxious/uncomfortable
when interacting w/ them; label anxiety as dislike for the group—becomes
mistrust/hostility
oAnxiety about outgroup leads to avoid such interactions all together
2.2 Stereotypes Distort Information Processing
-Humans are not open and unbiased processors of information related to
stereotypes
-Like other schemas, stereotypes, guide attention and interpretation in a way as
to increase the probability that perceivers expectancies will be confirmed
Stereotypes Guide Attention
-Stereotypes can distort info processing by affecting what perceivers notice about
members of the stereotyped group
Generally perceivers look for information that confirms the stereotype
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 9: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination -Prejudice: a negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very strongly held Perceiver prejudges the gargets Positive and negative prejudice exists Attitude -Discrimination: negative, harmful behavior toward people based on their group membership Possible consequence of prejudice Positive and negative discrimination exists; +ve called (reverse discrimination) o +ve=specialpreferential treatment to members of a group o ve=range in actions from avoiding to genocide (eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murder) Behavior -Stereotype: individuals beliefs that members of a group share particular attributes Positive and negative stereotypes exist 1. PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION TODAY -Blatant and overt discrimination is declining in Canada but it still exists Discrimination=illegal Equal access=mandatory policy Social norms censure prejudice, making ppl less likely to express ve feelings -Implicit attitudes: individuals automatic and often unconscious evaluations of a target Some people have negative implicit attitudes towards disadvantaged groups nut are not consciously aware of these negative automatic responses -Dovidio and Gaertner: old-fashioned blatant racial discrimination has been replaced by more subtle and ambiguous discrimination; majority group members have ambivalentor conflicted feelings toward minorities; new prejudice=aversive racism www.notesolution.com Aversive racism=modern kind of prejudice held by people who do not consider themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive, but who nevertheless harbor some negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward members of minority groups Aversive racists hypothesized to exhibit discriminations toward minorities when the circumstances made negative treatment justifiable, thereby providing an excuse for discrimination Dovidio and Gaertner study: 2 samples of White Americans 1989 and 1999 Measure blatant prejudice: agreement w statements (i.e. I would mind it if a Black family moved next door to my home) o Result: less blatant prejudice from 1989 to 1999 Measure discriminatory behavior when circumstances provided an excuse: evaluate candidates for peer-counseling program o Candidate was either: White or Black; possessed strong, ambiguous or weak qualifications o Result: When qualifications were strongweak,@ both time periods recommended him whether White or Black did not recommend him whether White or Black When qualifications were ambiguous, participants recommend the white applicant more often than the Black applicant (1989=75% vs. 50%; 1999=77% vs. 40%) Result=more recent sample has less blatant prejudice, discrimination continues to occur when the circumstances mask it -Implicit Association TestAT): assesses respondents automatic, implicit attitudes towards minority groups Used bc ppl are unwilling to admit or are unaware of ve feelings -Facial EMG: used as a physiological measure of prejudice 2. STEREOTYPES: COGNITIVE SOURCES OF PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION -Cognitive perspective: prejudice is the byproduct of normal human thinking processes Stereotypes (i.e. doctors are compassionate and hockey players are aggressive) Stereotypes qualify as one kind of schema www.notesolution.com
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