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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Notes

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune

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Chapter 3 t Social Cognition: Thinking about People
CategorizationÆ the process of recognizing and identifying something
I.e. labelling a set of symptoms as a stroke is an example of categorization
Social cognitionÆ the study of how info about ppl is processed and stored
SchemasÆ mental representations of categories, which contain the central features of the object, or
category as well as assumptions about how the object or category works
I.e. relational schemasÆ ppl have schemas for specific interpersonal interactions such as how doctors
and patients are supposed to interact
Why do humans develop schemas?Æ To categorize objects in a way that imposes meaning and
predictability
When we categorize something, we assume that it possesses the characteristics of the schema (or most
of them) even if we cannot perceive those characteristics directly
^Zu}v[iµ]u}uv]vP}vZÁ}oUZÇo}]v(vZ}Á]v(}]}Æ i.e. study
}v]}v}(^À_v^o]]v_~]À]vP]v}Ç
Schemas:
1. Function: Categorization
2. Function: Info Gain
3. Function: Rapid, efficient decisions
4. Consequence: Selective attention
5. Consequence: Selective interpretation
ZuÁ]oo]ÀÁZvZ}i[features match the features of the schema; another factor
which influences whether a schema will be used is accessibilityÆthe ease with which a schema comes
to awareness
PrimingÆ the process by which the activation of a schema increases the likelihood that the schema will
be activated again in the future
Cultures differ in the schemas that are used most often to categorize both self and othersÆ Western
(individualism) vs. Eastern (collectivism)
StereotypeÆ a set of characteristics that a perceiver associates with members of a group
In-group vs. Out-group mentalityÆ stereotypes usually include info about how much variability
(difference in a characteristic) exists in the group
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Description
Chapter 3 J Social Cognition: Thinking about People Categorization the process of recognizing and identifying something I.e. labelling a set of symptoms as a stroke is an example of categorization Social cognition the study of how info about ppl is processed and stored Schemas mental representations of categories, which contain the central features of the object, or category as well as assumptions about how the object or category works I.e. relational schemas ppl have schemas for specific interpersonal interactions such as how doctors and patients are supposed to interact Why do humans develop schemas? To categorize objects in a way that imposes meaning and predictability When we categorize something, we assume that it possesses the characteristics of the schema (or most of them) even if we cannot perceive those characteristics directly ^ ZKZ}L[EZ]K}ZKL]L2}LZ}o7ZoZ}]LoL Z}]L}]Z} ZZ i.e. study }L ]}L}^Z_L^o]]L_~ ]]L2 ]LZ}Z Schemas: 1. Function: Categorization 2. Function: Info Gain 3. Function: Rapid, efficient decisions 4. Consequence: Selective attention 5. Consequence: Selective interpretation Z ZK]oo ]ZLZ}E [Zfeatures match the features of the schema; another factor which influences whether a schema will be used is accessibilitythe ease with which a schema comes to awareness Priming the process by which the activation of a schema increases the likelihood that the schema will be activated again in the future Cultures differ in the schemas that are used most often to categorize both self and others Western (individualism) vs. Eastern (collectivism) Stereotype a set of characteristics that a perceiver associates with members of a group In-group vs. Out-group mentality stereotypes usually include info about how much variability (difference in a characteristic) exists in the group www.notesolution.com
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