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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Notes

7 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune

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Chapter 4 t Social Perception: Perceiving the Self and Others
Judgements about personal qualities and external forces ]v(oµv]vPo[ZÀ]}µÆattribution
theories; models that attempt to delineate the processes underlying judgements of cause
AttributionsÆ causal judgements about why an event or behaviour occurred e.g. Pay It Forward
/v]v]µ]}v}]víõóìÁ}v}(Z(]}ÁZ}Pv]]À[]À]v}
psych
Harold Kelley; intuitive scientistsÆ untrained scientists who try to make causal judgements in a rational,
scientific manner
Kelley suggests that ppl behave intuitively in testing everyday causal judgements; make repeated
observations and determine whether certain events reliably occur under specific conditions
Covariation model of attributionÆ an attribution theory proposing that we make causal judgements by
determining whether a particular behaviour correlated with a person, a situation, or some combo of
persons and situations
False consensus effectÆ the tendency to assume that other ppl share our own attitudes and behaviours
to a greater extent than is actually the case
ÆuoWW]]v[]]}v}Á]Pv~>Z}
Reasons for False Consensus: 1) we tend to interact with ppl who agree with us; not representative of
ZPvo}[vU(]vu}]u]o}Ç}µZvZÀP}vV
Discounting principleÆ a rule of attribution that states that the perceived role of a cause will be
discounted (reduced) if other plausible causes are also present (e.g. bad driving vs. the road is icy)
Augmentation principleÆ a rule of attribution that states that the perceived role of a cause will be
augmented (increased) if other factors are present that would work against the behaviour (e.g. student
gets a very high mark on a test w/class avg of 45% therefore the student is VERY smart
Fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias)ÆÁ:}vVZvvÇ}µuZo[
actions and words reflect their personality, their attitudes, or some other internal factor, rather than
external or situational factors
tv}oÇ}}uµZ}v}vo]Ç}Æo]v}Zo[]}vÆ we believe everyone has stable
personality traits and we underestimate the power of the situation/context
Correspondence bias represents a failure to use the discounting principleÆ failure to discount internal
factors when plausible external factors are present
www.notesolution.com
Causes of the Correspondence Bias:
1) We are unaware of subtle external factors that influence behaviour e.g. we conclude that a
µvÁZ}(]o]v[ulÁµvÁZZ(o]l
2) We underestimate the power of external factors on behaviour e.g. we conclude that a man
donating money is generous b/c we do not believe that seeing someone do it before him has
influenced his behaviour
3) We do not have the cognitive resources necessary to take situational factors into account
when explaining behaviour e.g. we conclude that person who falls is clumsy b/c we are
distracted by convo with a friend, and we d}v[o}}l(}}]oÆvoµo]lÁ(o}}
4) Western culture emphasizes the importance of personal, internal causes of behaviourÆwe
assume successful businessman is hardworking b/c we believe that ppl in our society can
accomplish anything if they work hard
Soc Psych in your lifeÆ North American reporters tend to exhibit the correspondence bias more than do
Asian reporters
Ppl often overlook the situational forces that influence behaviour and instead interpret others behaviour
in terms of internal, dispositional factors
Milgram Shock ExperimentÆobedience study showed that ppl follow the orders of an experimenter to
deliver intense electric shocks to another person; ppl were surprised that situational pressure provided
by the authority of an experimenter was sufficient to produce such obedience
Also Bystander effect
Nonverbal behaviourÆactions and cues that communicate meaning in ways other than by words
Not just the words you use; also how the words are expressed
Usually nonverbal cues do not directly conflict with verbal content, but instead provide additional
infoÆuseful in judging emotion; not completely under voluntary control;
Interpretation of nonverbal cues is a skill that slowly develops in children; not always able to understand
conflicting cues (i.e. a happy msg delivered in a sad tone)
Studies show that recognition of facial expressions is far from perfect, but evidence for at least some
universality of emotion recognition is accumulating
Charles DarwinÆ facial expressions in humans are biologically based + universal i.e. disgustÆ vomiting
Gender diffs in nonverbal behaviourÆ Á}uviµPZvuv}(}Zo[emotions
reflects intimacy and liking; interpersonal relationships; men not allowed to show emotion
Display rulesÆnorms in culture for how and when emotions should be expressed; i.e. in Japan it is
considered inappropriate to show strong emotions
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 4 J Social Perception: Perceiving the Self and Others Judgements about personal qualities and external forces ]LoL ]L2oZ[Z]}attribution theories; models that attempt to delineate the processes underlying judgements of cause Attributions causal judgements about why an event or behaviour occurred e.g. Pay It Forward LZ]L]]}L} ZZ]LZZ}L}Z]ZZZ}ZZ }2L]][Z ]]LZ} psych Harold Kelley; intuitive scientists untrained scientists who try to make causal judgements in a rational, scientific manner Kelley suggests that ppl behave intuitively in testing everyday causal judgements; make repeated observations and determine whether certain events reliably occur under specific conditions Covariation model of attribution an attribution theory proposing that we make causal judgements by determining whether a particular behaviour correlated with a person, a situation, or some combo of persons and situations False consensus effect the tendency to assume that other ppl share our own attitudes and behaviours to a greater extent than is actually the case Ko99] ]LZ[ ]Z]}LZ}Z]2L~>Z}ZZ Reasons for False Consensus: 1) we tend to interact with ppl who agree with us; not representative of Z2Lo}[L7]LZK}Z]K]o}}ZLZ2Z}L8 Discounting principle a rule of attribution that states that the perceived role of a cause will be discounted (reduced) if other plausible causes are also present (e.g. bad driving vs. the road is icy) Augmentation principle a rule of attribution that states that the perceived role of a cause will be augmented (increased) if other factors are present that would work against the behaviour (e.g. student gets a very high mark on a test wclass avg of 45% therefore the student is VERY smart Fundamental attribution error (correspondence bias):}LZ8ZLL }ZZKZoZ[ actions and words reflect their personality, their attitudes, or some other internal factor, rather than external or situational factors JL}o}}K Z}LZ}Lo]}o]L}ZoZ[ ]}LZ we believe everyone has stable personality traits and we underestimate the power of the situationcontext Correspondence bias represents a failure to use the discounting principle failure to discount internal factors when plausible external factors are present www.notesolution.com
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