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PSY220H1 (200)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY220H1
Professor
Jennifer Fortune

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Chapter 5 t The Person in the Situation: Self-Concept, Gender, and Dispositions
DispositionsÆ ]v]À]µo[}v]v]}]uv]vP]v](]Ç}((o]vPUZ}µPZU
and/or action, which make individuals different from other ppl
E.g. individual students respond very differently to the same exam result
Self-esteemÆ ]}]]}vZvo[iµPuv}(Z]}ÁvÁ}Z]v
Much of what is thought of as being human has to do with self-reflection; underscores the importance
of the self as a psychological construct
Self-conceptÆall info about the self in memory (e.g. past behaviour, beliefs about current qualities,
expectations for the future, etc)
IdentityÆ the characteristics that individuals think define them and make up their most important
qualities
Where do elements of identity come from? How do we come to see ourselves in a particular way?
1) Social comparisonÆ we compare ourselves to other ppl to evaluate and define ourselves
2) Self-perceptionÆ we infer attitudes and feelings directly from our own experiences and
behaviour
Changes over time and settings reflect that only limited portions of the self-concept can be accessible at
vÇP]Àvu}uv]v]u~XPXÇ}µ[µv}vÇ}µÁÇ}Z}}oUµ(]Pµl}vÇ}µÁy
to practice)
Spontaneous self-conceptÆ the aspects of identity that are in conscious awareness at a given point in
time; changes in response to personal and situation factors
The accessibility of a particular feature of the self will depend on how recently it has been activated
(priming)
Another variable that influences the spontaneous self-concept is the distinctiveness of a feature in a
]µo]vPXPXÁ}uv[o(-concept is more likely to include her sex when she is the only girl in
a group
Social identity theory (Henri Tajfel)Æ a model hypothesising that ppl want to have a +ve appraisals of
P}µ}ÁZ]ZZÇo}vPVv]u}v}u}vv}(]v]À]µo[]v]Ç}u(}uZ]P}µ
memberships
When ppl are given the chance to distribute resources b/ween members of their ingroup and members
of the outgroup, they systematically favour their ingroupÆ ingroup favouritism; over estimator/under
estimator study
www.notesolution.com
Minimal group paradigmÆ a procedure in which participants are divided into groups based on trivial
features or info
In-group bias occurs even when groups are formed randomly
Tajfel concluded ppl want their ingroup to be both different from and better than other groups
Optimal distinctiveness theoryÆ a model hypothesizing that ppl want to maintain a balance between
similarity to other ppl and individuality from other ppl; although distinctiveness is an important goal in
social identity, it coexists with a need to belong to groups
Me vs. We mentalities in individualist and collectivistic cultures
Data indicates that ppl from collectivistic cultures define themselves in terms of their relationships to
other more than do ppl from individualist cultures
Sources of Self-Esteem:
1) personal experiences Æ e.g. successful or unsuccessful social relationships
2) academic achievement
3) social comparison
Ppl with high self-esteem have clearer and more certain views of themselves than do ppl with low self-
esteem; ppl with high self-esteem exhibit more self-enhancement in a variety of ways
Compared to ppl with low self-esteem, ppl with high self-esteem are more likely to:
1) attributes success to internal factors
2) attribute failure to external factors
3) recall info about personal successes better than info about personal failures
4) exaggerate their control over situations
NarcissismÆa disposition that represents the extent to which ppl have excessive love for themselves;
views of self are not connected to reality
Threatened egotismÆ a hostile, aggressive response to criticism from others, which has been linked to
narcissism; excessive self-love becomes tiresome and unattractive to other ppl over time
Secure high self-esteemÆ a positive self-view that is confidently held; these ppl feel good about
themselves and do not need constant reassurance
Defensive high self-esteemÆ a positive self-view that is fragile and vulnerable to threat; these ppl
harbour subconscious self-doubts and insecurities which can lead them to react very negatively to
criticism (threatened egotism)
Gender is the characteristic that is used more often than any other characteristic to spontaneously
categorize ppl we encounter
www.notesolution.com

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Description
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