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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Key Terms & Notes

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin

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Chapter One – Looking at Abnormality
Psychopathology: people who suffer mental, emotional, and often physical pain as a
result of some form of psychological or mental disorder sometimes experiences of
people who suffer from psychopathology are unusual.
Context: environment and circumstances in which a behaviour occurs
Gender roles: According to Freud, what society considers to be the appropriate
behaviours for males or females
Some theorists focus on – unusualness of behaviour, discomfort of the person exhibiting
behaviour, presence of mental illness, and maladaptiveness of behaviour.
Cultural Relativism: a perspective that holds that there are no universal standards or
rules for labeling behaviour as abnormal. Instead, behaviours can only be abnormal
relative to cultural norms. Cultural relativists believe that there are different definitions of
abnormality across different cultures.
Unusualness: criterion for abnormality that suggests that abnormal behaviours are rare or
unexpected
Discomfort: criterion for abnormality that suggests that only behaviours that cause a
person great distress should be labeled as abnormal
Mental Illness: phrase used to refer to a physical illness that causes severe abnormal
thoughts, behaviours, and feelings
Maladaptive: in reference to behaviours, causing people who have the behaviours
physical or emotional harm, preventing them from functioning in daily life, and/or
indicating that they have lost touch with reality and/or cannot control their thoughts and
behaviour
- Three components of maladaptiveness can be remembered with the heuristic of the 3Ds:
dysfunction, distress, and deviance
Biological theories: theories of abnormality that focus on biological causes of abnormal
behaviours
Supernatural theories: theories that see mental disorders as the result of supernatural
forces, such as divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and/or personal sins;
mental disorders can be cured through religious rituals, exorcisms, confessions and/or
death
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Description
Chapter One Looking at Abnormality Psychopathology: people who suffer mental, emotional, and often physical pain as a result of some form of psychological or mental disorder sometimes experiences of people who suffer from psychopathology are unusual. Context: environment and circumstances in which a behaviour occurs Gender roles: According to Freud, what society considers to be the appropriate behaviours for males or females Some theorists focus on unusualness of behaviour, discomfort of the person exhibiting behaviour, presence of mental illness, and maladaptiveness of behaviour. Cultural Relativism: a perspective that holds that there are no universal standards or rules for labeling behaviour as abnormal. Instead, behaviours can only be abnormal relative to cultural norms. Cultural relativists believe that there are different definitions of abnormality across different cultures. Unusualness: criterion for abnormality that suggests that abnormal behaviours are rare or unexpected Discomfort: criterion for abnormal
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