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Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Key Terms & Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin

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Chapter Three – The Research Endeavour
Scientific method: steps designed to obtain and evaluate information relevant to a
problem in a systematic way
Null hypothesis: the expectation, that there is no relationship between the phenomena
being studied – in this case, stress and depression
Variable: a factor or characteristic that can vary within an individual or between
individuals. For example, weight, mood, neurotransmitter levels, etc – these vary over
time whereas, height, sex, and ethnicity are factors that do not vary over time for
individuals but can vary from one individual to another
Dependent variable: the factor being predicted in a study – when trying to predict
depressive symptoms as a result of stress – depression would be the dependent variable
Independent variable: the factor that is believed to affect the dependent variable – for
example stress (manipulated variable)
Operationalizations: the way a researcher measure or manipulates the variables in a
study
Case studies: detailed histories of individuals who have suffered a form of psychological
disorder
Generalizability: the ability to apply what has been learned to other individuals or
groups – case studies sometimes lack this, what may apply to one individual may not
apply to others
Replication: key feature of scientific method, researchers bring own perspectives to a
case study; and as a result, one case study may not replicate – repeat the conclusions of –
another
Continuous variable: study of two or more continuous variables is most common
correlational study in abnormal psychology: the continuous variable is measured along a
continuum, for example for depression rate yourself on a scale of 0 to 100.
Group comparison study: researchers are interested in relationship between peoples
membership in a particular group and their scores on some other variable.
Cross-sectional: observe people at only one point in time
Longitudinal: observe people on two more occasions over time
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Description
Chapter Three The Research Endeavour Scientific method: steps designed to obtain and evaluate information relevant to a problem in a systematic way Null hypothesis: the expectation, that there is no relationship between the phenomena being studied in this case, stress and depression Variable: a factor or characteristic that can vary within an individual or between individuals. For example, weight, mood, neurotransmitter levels, etc these vary over time whereas, height, sex, and ethnicity are factors that do not vary over time for individuals but can vary from one individual to another Dependent variable: the factor being predicted in a study when trying to predict depressive symptoms as a result of stress depression would be the dependent variable Independent variable: the factor that is believed to affect the dependent variable for example stress (manipulated variable) Operationalizations: the way a researcher measure or manipulates the variables in a study Case studies: detailed histories of individuals who have suffered a form of psychological disorder Generalizability: the ability to apply what has been learned to other individuals or groups case studies sometimes lack this, what may apply to one individual may not apply to others Replication: key feature of scientific method, researchers bring own perspectives to a case study; and as a result, one case study may not replicate repeat the conclusions of another Continuous variable: study of two or more continuous variables is most common correlational study in abnormal psychology: the continuous variable is measured along a continuum, for example for depression rate yourself on a scale of 0 to 100. Group comparison study: researchers are interested in relationship between peoples membership in a particular group and their scores on some other variable. Cross-sectional: observe people at only one point in time Longitudinal: observe people on two more occasions over time www.notesolution.com
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