Barbiturates: drugs used to treat anxiety and insomnia that work by suppressing the central
nervous system and decreasing the activity level of certain hormones
Benzodiazepines: drugs that reduce anxiety and insomnia
Electroconvulsive therapy: used as an alterative to drug therapies and is useful in treating severe
depression. It is a treatment for depression that involves the induction of a brain seizure by
passing electrical current through the patient’s brain while he or she is anesthetized
Prefrontal lobotomy: a procedure where the frontal lobes of the brain were severed from the
lower centers of the brain in people suffering from psychosis
Psychosurgery: used on rare occasions to help people with severe psychopathology that is not
affected by drugs or other treatments
Repetitive Transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): biological treatment that exposes
patients to repeated, high intensity magnetic pulses that re focused on particular brain structures
in order to stimulate those structures
Psychodynamic theories: focus on uncovering and resolving unconscious conflicts that are
thought to drive psychological symptoms. The goal is to help clients recognize the maladaptive
ways in which they have been trying to cope and the sources of their unconscious conflicts.
Free association: when a client is taught to talk about whatever comes to mind, trying not to
censor any thoughts. By turning off the censor a client might find herself talking about subjects
or memories that she did not even realize were on her mind.
Resistance: material that the client is reluctant to talk about during psychotherapy – a clue to the
client’s most central unconscious conflicts because it is the most threatening.
Transference: occurs when the client reacts to the therapist as if the therapist were an important
person in the client’s early development, such as a father.
Working through: method used in psychodynamic therapies in which the client repeatedly goes
over and over painful memories and difficult issues a s away to understand and accept them
Catharsis: expression of emotions connected to memories and conflicts – catharsis unleashes the
energy bound in unconscious memories and conflicts, allowing this material to be incorporated
into more adaptive self-views.