Anxiety sensitivity: The belief that symptoms of anxiety have harmful consequences.
Those high in anxiety sensitivity are more likely to have panic disorder, more frequent
panic attacks, or develop attacks over time
Interoceptive awareness: a heightened awareness to bodily cues that a panic attack may
Treatments for Panic Disorder –
Tricyclic antidepressants: increase levels of Norepinephrine and a number of other
neurotransmitters – reduce panic attacks in the majority of patients
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): increase levels of serotonin in the
brain, they are about as effective as Tricyclic antidepressants in reducing acute anxiety
Benzodiazepines: suppress the central nervous system and influence functioning in the
GABA, Norepinephrine, and serotonin neurotransmitter systems. They have 3 major
disadvantages which include: physically and psychologically addictive, interfere with
cognitive and motor functioning, half of the patient s begin having panic attacks again
shortly after discontinuing treatment
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: teaches clients ways to reduce anxiety symptoms, to
reinterpret these symptoms in a more positive way; systematic desensitization used to
expose clients gradually to feared situations as they use new skills to quell anxiety
Interoceptive exposure: engaging in exercises or tasks that bring on feelings of anxiety
Systematic desensitization therapy: expose the client gradually to the situations they
most fear while helping them maintain control over their panic systems. Patient comes up
with list of most panic inducing situations from worst to least threatening.
Agoraphobia: fear crowded, bustling places, such as the marketplace or, in our times, the
shopping mall. They also fear enclosed spaces, such as buses, subways and elevators, and
fear wide-open spaces such as open fields.
Specific phobias: fall into one of four categories: animal type, natural environment type,
situational type, and blood injection injury type. When people with these phobias
encounter their feared objects or situations, their anxiety is immediate and intense, and
they may eve have full panic attacks, they also become anxious if they believe there is a
chance they will encounter feared object.
Animal type phobias: focused on specific animals or insects