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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Key Terms & Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin

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Chapter 7 – Anxiety Disorders
Extraordinary People – Mark Summers, TV Show host who suffered from Obsessive
Compulsive Disorder
Anxiety: a state of apprehension, tension, and worry. There are several symptoms that
qualify as symptoms of anxiety, and can fall under somatic, emotional, cognitive, and
behavioural.
Neurosis: according to Freud, a set of maladaptive symptoms caused by unconscious
anxiety
Panic attacks: short but intense periods in which many symptoms of anxiety are
experienced which can include heart palpitations, trembling, a feeling of choking,
dizziness, intense dread, and so on. When four or more symptoms occur frequently and
interfere with daily living the individual may be diagnosed with panic disorder.
Panic disorder: when panic attacks become a common occurrence, when the panic
attacks are usually not provoked by any particular situation and when a person begins to
worry about having attacks and changes behaviours as a result of this worry, they could
be diagnosed with panic disorder.
Appears to run in families, may be a biological vulnerability to this disorder
Norepinephrine: found that antidepressant medications reduce panic attacks, which led
to the belief that Norepinephrine may be involved in panic disorder, it may be poorly
regulated in people with panic disorder, especially in an area of the brain stem called the
locus ceruleus.
Limbic system: a part of the brain that relays information from the primitive brain stem
about changes in bodily functions to the cortex, where the information is interpreted.
Limbic system may be involved in diffuse, anticipatory anxiety. Poor regulation in the
locus ceruleus causes panic attacks, which then stimulate and kindle the limbic system,
lowering the threshold for the activation of diffuse and chronic anxiety.
The Kindling Model of Panic Disorder ^
Those with panic disorder can be made to have a panic attack when asked to
hyperventilate or inhale small amounts of carbon dioxide
Cognitive Model
www.notesolution.com
Anxiety sensitivity: The belief that symptoms of anxiety have harmful consequences.
Those high in anxiety sensitivity are more likely to have panic disorder, more frequent
panic attacks, or develop attacks over time
Interoceptive awareness: a heightened awareness to bodily cues that a panic attack may
soon happen.
Treatments for Panic Disorder
Tricyclic antidepressants: increase levels of Norepinephrine and a number of other
neurotransmitters – reduce panic attacks in the majority of patients
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): increase levels of serotonin in the
brain, they are about as effective as Tricyclic antidepressants in reducing acute anxiety
symptoms
Benzodiazepines: suppress the central nervous system and influence functioning in the
GABA, Norepinephrine, and serotonin neurotransmitter systems. They have 3 major
disadvantages which include: physically and psychologically addictive, interfere with
cognitive and motor functioning, half of the patient s begin having panic attacks again
shortly after discontinuing treatment
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy: teaches clients ways to reduce anxiety symptoms, to
reinterpret these symptoms in a more positive way; systematic desensitization used to
expose clients gradually to feared situations as they use new skills to quell anxiety
symptoms
Interoceptive exposure: engaging in exercises or tasks that bring on feelings of anxiety
Systematic desensitization therapy: expose the client gradually to the situations they
most fear while helping them maintain control over their panic systems. Patient comes up
with list of most panic inducing situations from worst to least threatening.
Phobias
Agoraphobia: fear crowded, bustling places, such as the marketplace or, in our times, the
shopping mall. They also fear enclosed spaces, such as buses, subways and elevators, and
fear wide-open spaces such as open fields.
Specific phobias: fall into one of four categories: animal type, natural environment type,
situational type, and blood injection injury type. When people with these phobias
encounter their feared objects or situations, their anxiety is immediate and intense, and
they may eve have full panic attacks, they also become anxious if they believe there is a
chance they will encounter feared object.
Animal type phobias: focused on specific animals or insects
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Description
Chapter 7 Anxiety Disorders Extraordinary People Mark Summers, TV Show host who suffered from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Anxiety: a state of apprehension, tension, and worry. There are several symptoms that qualify as symptoms of anxiety, and can fall under somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioural. Neurosis: according to Freud, a set of maladaptive symptoms caused by unconscious anxiety Panic attacks: short but intense periods in which many symptoms of anxiety are experienced which can include heart palpitations, trembling, a feeling of choking, dizziness, intense dread, and so on. When four or more symptoms occur frequently and interfere with daily living the individual may be diagnosed with panic disorder. Panic disorder: when panic attacks become a common occurrence, when the panic attacks are usually not provoked by any particular situation and when a person begins to worry about having attacks and changes behaviours as a result of this worry, they could be diagnosed with panic disorder. Appears to run in families, may be a biological vulnerability to this disorder Norepinephrine: found that antidepressant medications reduce panic attacks, which led to the belief that Norepinephrine may be involved in panic disorder, it may be poorly regulated in people with panic disorder, especially in an area of the brain stem called the locus ceruleus. Limbic system: a part of the brain that relays information from the primitive brain stem about changes in bodily functions to the cortex, where the information is interpreted. Limbic system may be involved in diffuse, anticipatory anxiety. Poor regulation in the locus ceruleus causes panic attacks, which then stimulate and kindle the limbic system, lowering the threshold for the activation of diffuse and chronic anxiety. The Kindling Model of Panic Disorder ^ Those with panic disorder can be made to have a panic attack when asked to hyperventilate or inhale small amounts of carbon dioxide Cognitive Model www.notesolution.com
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