Chapter 9 – Mood Disorders
Bipolar disorder: disorder marked by cycles between manic episodes and depressive
episodes; also called manic depression
Mania: state of persistently elevated mood, feelings of grandiosity, over enthusiasm,
racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive actions
Depression: state marked by either a sad mood or a loss of interest in one’s usual
activities, as well as feelings of hopelessness, suicidal ideation, psychomotor agitation or
retardation, and trouble concentrating.
Unipolar depression: second type of mood disorder; people with unipolar depression
experience only depression no mania.
Sometimes people with depression lose sight of reality and begin to experience delusions
Delusions: are beliefs with no basis in reality
Hallucinations: involve seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not real
Two categories of unipolar depression:
Major depression: requires that person experience either depressed mood or loss of
interest in usual activities, plus at least four other symptoms of depression chronically for
at least two weeks, symptoms have to be severe enough to interfere with functioning in
Dysthymic disorder: a less severe form of depressive disorder than is major depression,
but it is more chronic. To be diagnosed a person must be experiencing depressed mood
plus two other symptoms of depression for at least two weeks.
Double depression: People who experience both major depression and dysthymic
disorder. People with double depression are chronically dysthymic and occasionally sink
into episodes of major depression.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD): subtype of major depressive disorder, people with
SAD have history of at least two years of experiencing major depressive episodes and
fully recovering from them. Symptoms seem to be tied to number of daylight hours in a
Bipolar I disorder: people who experience manic episodes, most of these people
eventually fall into a depressive episode. For some, the depressions are as severe as major
depressive episodes, whereas others have episodes of depression that are relatively mild
Episodes meeting full criteria for mania are necessary for diagnosis