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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Key Terms & Notes

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
S.Cassin

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Chapter 11 – Schizophrenia
Psychosis: the inability to differentiate from what is real and what is unreal. It can take
many forms and has many causes.
Schizophrenia: Most common psychotic disorder – disorder consisting of unreal or
disorganized thoughts and perceptions as well as verbal, cognitive, and behavioural
deficits. Symptoms vary, for example people with this disorder can think and
communicate clearly but at other times their thinking and speech can be garbled.
Psychotic Disorders recognized by DSM-IV-TR
Disorder Description
SchizophreniaAt least one month of acute symptoms of delusions,
hallucinations, disorganized thought and speech,
disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms and at least
six months of some symptoms of disorder
Schizophreniform disorderSame symptoms as schizophrenia, lasting more than one
month but less than 6 months
Schizoaffective disorderSymptoms of schizophrenia coinciding with symptoms of
depression or mania but at least a 2 week period when only
symptoms of schizophrenia present
Delusional disorderEvidence only of non-bizarre delusions of at least 1 months
duration; functioning at relatively high level
Brief psychotic disorderPresence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech
or behaviour for at least one day but less than one month
Shared psychotic disorderThe individual in a close relationship with someone who is
delusional with similar delusions
Substance-induced
psychotic disorder
Hallucinations or delusions caused by the direct
physiological effects of a substance
Significant portion of patients with schizophrenia are in jails/prisons, shelters, hospitals,
etc. It is one of the most stigmatized disorders
Two categories of symptoms include
Positive symptoms: also called type I symptoms, are characterized by the presence of
unusual perceptions, thoughts, or behaviours. Positive refers to the fact that these
symptoms represent very salient experiences.
Negative symptoms: or Type II symptoms represent losses or deficits in certain domains.
They involve absence of behaviours, rather than presence of behaviours.
Positive Symptoms
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Delusions: ideas that an individual believes are true but are highly unlikely and often
simply impossible. These differ from self-deceptions (chances of winning the lottery).
They have little grounding in reality.
Persecutory delusion: type of delusion we hear about most often in media depictions of
people with schizophrenia. People with these delusions may believe they are being
watched or tormented by people they know, such as their professors, or by agencies or
persons in authority with whom they have never had direct contact, such as government
officials
Delusions of reference: people believe that random events or comments by others are
directed at them.
Grandiose delusions: beliefs that one is a special person or being or possesses special
powers
Delusion of thought insertion: the belief that ones thoughts are being controlled by
outside forces.
Other delusions include thought broadcasting, thought insertion, thought withdrawal,
delusion of guilt or sin, or somatic delusions
Hallucinations: unreal perceptual experiences such as hearing voices.
Auditory hallucination: hearing voices, music, and so on is the most common type of
hallucination, and is more common in women than men.
Visual hallucination: often accompanied by auditory hallucinations, a person with
schizophrenia may see Satan standing at her bedside
Tactile hallucination: involve the perception that something is happening to the outside
of ones body, for example, that bugs are crawling up ones back
Somatic hallucinations: involve the perception that something is happening inside ones
body, for example that worms are eating ones intestines
Disorganized Thought and Speech: often referred to as formal thought disorder - state
of highly disorganized thinking
Word salad: speech that is so disorganized that a listener cannot comprehend it
Smooth pursuit eye movement: people with schizophrenia show deficits in this, it is a
task when individuals are asked to keep their head still and track a moving object
Working memory: people with schizophrenia show deficits in working memory, and in
the capacity to hold information in memory and manipulate it
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Description
Chapter 11 Schizophrenia Psychosis: the inability to differentiate from what is real and what is unreal. It can take many forms and has many causes. Schizophrenia: Most common psychotic disorder disorder consisting of unreal or disorganized thoughts and perceptions as well as verbal, cognitive, and behavioural deficits. Symptoms vary, for example people with this disorder can think and communicate clearly but at other times their thinking and speech can be garbled. Psychotic Disorders recognized by DSM-IV-TR Disorder Description Schizophrenia At least one month of acute symptoms of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought and speech, disorganized behaviour and negative symptoms and at least six months of some symptoms of disorder Schizophreniform disorder Same symptoms as schizophrenia, lasting more than one month but less than 6 months Schizoaffective disorder Symptoms of schizophrenia coinciding with symptoms of depression or mania but at least a 2 week period when only symptoms of schizophrenia present Delusional disorder Evidence only of non-bizarre delusions of at least 1 months duration; functioning at relatively high level Brief psychotic disorder Presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behaviour for at least one day but less than one month Shared psychotic disorder The individual in a close relationship with someone who is delusional with similar delusions Substance-induced Hallucinations or delusions caused by the direct psychotic disorder physiological effects of a substance Significant portion of patients with schizophrenia are in jailsprisons, shelters, hospitals, etc. It is one of the most stigmatized disorders Two categories of symptoms include Positive symptoms: also called type I symptoms, are characterized by the presence of unusual perceptions, thoughts, or behaviours. Positive refers to the fact that these symptoms represent very salient experiences. Negative symptoms: or Type II symptoms represent losses or deficits in certain domains. They involve absence of behaviours, rather than presence of behaviours. Positive Symptoms www.notesolution.com
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