PSY240 Abnormal Psychology
Final – Chapters 11, 12, 16, 17
Chapter 17 – Substance – Related Disorders
Substance: any natural or synthesized product that has psychoactive effects – it changes
perceptions, thoughts, emotions, and behaviours.
Drug addicts: people who have problems as a result of taking drugs
Substance-related disorder: some peoples use of substances may lead to significant problems in
their abilities to function in their daily life – they may shirk their job and family responsibilities,
they may act impulsively or bizarrely and they may endanger their own lives and lives of others,
they are said to have a substance-related disorder.
Substance intoxication: experience of significant maladaptive behavioural and psychological
symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the central nervous system. When people are
intoxicated their perceptions change and they may see or hear strange things.
Substance withdrawal: experience of clinically significant distress in social, occupational, or
other areas of functioning due to the cessation or reduction of substance use. Involves a set of
physiological and behavioural symptoms that result when people have been using substances
heavily for prolonged periods of time stop using the substances or greatly reduce their use.
Substance abuse: diagnosis given when recurrent substance use leads to significant harmful
Substance dependence: diagnosis given when substance use leads to physiological dependence
or significant impairment or distress
Tolerance: is present when a person experiences less and less effect from the same dose of a
substance and needs greater and greater doses of a substance in order to achieve intoxication.
Blackout: those who are intoxicated often do not recognize that they are or may flatly deny it,
even though it is obvious and once sober, they may have amnesia, known as a blackout for the
events that occurred while they were intoxicated.
Alcohol abuse: when people use alcohol in dangerous situations such as when driving, fail to
meet important obligations at work or home as a result of their alcohol use, and have recurrent
legal or social problems as a result of their alcohol use.
Alcohol dependence: those given this diagnosis typically have all the problems of an alcohol
abuser; plus they may show physiological tolerance to alcohol, they spend a great deal of time