PSY240H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Tegmentum, Reuptake, Fasciculation
ProfessorMartha Mc Kay
Chapter 17 Substance Related
•A substance is any natural or synthesized product that has psychoactive effects—it
changes perceptions, thoughts, emotions, and behaviours.
•Males > females---> likely to try illegal drugs, but females more likely to depend on it
•Nearly half of the U.S. population have tried an illegal substance; 15% have used one
in the past year
•Similar patterns run across the U.S. and Canada, though Canadians use less cocaine
and more LSD than do Americans.
•Alcohol use is stable over time, but there has been a recent increase in ecstasy
•Drug use and abuse across cultures:
- Muslim cultures may impose strict sanctions for the use of any drugs; China
certainly did at the time of the cultural revolution.
- In the UK, drug abuse is viewed as a medical problem.
- Holland make a clear distinction between soft and hard drugs.
-Many South Americans, Middle Easterners, & East Africans regularly chew khat
and see nothing deviant in doing so.
- First Nations groups in Canada and the US use
•In Canada, alcohol and illicit drugs costs society about 14 billion dollars a year due to
lost productivity, legal costs, and health costs.
•There are 86,000 admissions to Canadian hospitals each year for alcohol-related
•Alcohol is associated with more than half of traffic deaths & homicides and 30% of all
•In 2002,19.3% all deaths in Canada could be attributed to alcohol, tobacco, or drugs.
Substance related categories on DSM
•Substance intoxication: Experience of significant maladaptive behavioral &
psychological symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the CNS
-Their attention is diminished or easily distracted
-Their perception is changed and they may hear or see strange things
-They can’t think straight and judgement is gone
-They lose control over their bodies & can’t keep balance
-They want to constantly sleep or not at all
-They are either gregarious or aggressive and impulsive
-Even after the alcohol has almost left the body’s system, the effects are still felt
•People’s expectations of a drug’s affect influences their reaction after ingested
•Substance withdrawal: Experience of clinical significant distress in social,
occupational, or other areas of functioning due to the cessation or reduction of
•Caffeine is not considered a substance because is does not cause impairment
•Withdrawal symptoms including seizures may develop several weeks after a person
stops taking high doses that take a long time to leave the body completely
• Substance abuse: Diagnosis given when recurrent substance use leads to
significant harmful consequences.
•However, some individuals abuse substances for years without dependence
•Substance dependence: Diagnosis given when substance use leads to
physiological dependence or significant impairment or distress.
•alcohol is separated from other substances
•the criteria apply to all substances including alcohol
•If they are at the point of dependence than they are prob meeting the criteria for abuse
•The individuals may develop tolerance, so they need more and more to feel high, and
they may have high blood concentration without feeling the effects
•The are compulsive to the substance & do anything to get it
Five Categories of Substance Abuse
•Central Nervous System Depressants
•(e.g., alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines,inhalents)
•Central Nervous System Stimulants (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine, caffeine)
•Opioids (e.g., heroin, morphine)
•Hallucinogens and phencyclidine (PCP)
Criteria for Substance Addiction
•Maladaptive pattern of substance use, leading to three or more of the following:
•1. Tolerance, as defined by either: the need for markedly increased amounts of
the substance to achieve intoxication or desired effect; markedly diminished effect with
continued use of the same amount. e.g smoking 20 cigarettes per day to feel same
•2. Withdrawal, as manifested by either: the characteristic withdrawal syndrome
for the substance; the same or closely related substance is taken to relieve or avoid
withdrawal symptoms. 2- people will take another substance to counteract the effects of
•3. The substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than
was intended. If someone intends to go out for 1 drink they can’t contain themselves
•4. There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut back or control use.
4- they have failed attempts to quit the habit
•5. A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance,
use the substance, or recover from its effects. 5- the individuals are spending a lot of time
doing what they can to get the substance
•6. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities are given up or
reduced because of substance use. 6- missing obligations they have because they would
•7. The substance use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or
recurrent physical or psychological problem caused or exacerbated by the substance.7-
still using even when they know it is causing themselves psychological harm