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Chapter 11 Schizophrenia
Over 90% of patients with schizophrenia seek treatment in mental-health hospital
a year
In Canada to annual cost of schizophrenia is estimated $ 2.02 billion dollars
Total economic burden is $6.85 billion
Most develop it in their late teens and early adult
In Canada 0.5 to 2% of the population has been diagnosed with schizophrenia-
spectrum disorder
Schizophrenia is one of the most stigmatized psychological disorder
Majority of people with schizophrenia live with family or alone
It higher is among immigrants than native-born
More common in men than women
Women have onset in late 20’s and early 30’s
Most likely to be married
Men have onset late teens and early 20’s
Women show fewer cognitive deficits than men, verbal processing
Estrogen affects the regulation of dopamine protecting women from
schizophrenia
Men with schizophrenia show greater abnormalities in the brain structure and
functioning
Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Prognosis of Schizophrenia
Two types of symptoms
Type 1- positive-delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought and speech,
disorganized or catatonic behaviour
Psychotic symptoms that occur in the absence of mania and depression, it is
schizophrenia
If depression or mania does not meet the criteria for a diagnosis of a mood
disorder it is schizophrenia
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Delusions- ideas one believes true, but are highly and often impossible
They often look for evidence to support their delusions
Try to convince others and usually are preoccupied with them
View others arguments against their delusions as a conspiracy to silence their
views
Persecutory delusions- false belief that oneself/one’s loved ones are being
persecuted/ watched or conspired against by others
Is the most common form of delusions
Delusions of reference- belief that random events are directed at oneself
Sometimes it is part of a grandiose belief system
Another common form
Grandiose delusion- false belief that one has great powers/ talent/knowledge/
famous and powerful person
Person thinks he is Christ rein carted
Delusions of thought insertion- one’s thoughts are being controlled by outside
forces
Some theorist argue that odd or impossible beliefs are part of ones cultures shared
belief system and cannot be considered delusions
Hallucinations- unreal perceptual experiences of people with schizophrenia tend
to be more bizarre and trouble and are precipitated not only by stress, sleep
dysfunction, or drugs
Auditory hallucination- hearing voices, music and so on
Most common type of hallucination
People with schizophrenia talk back to these voices, even when they trying to talk
to people who actually in the room with them
Visual hallucination- mostly accompanied by auditory hallucination
Tactile hallucination (outside of the body)- perception that something is
happening to the outside of one’s body
Somatic (inside of the body)- perception that something is happening to the inside
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of one’s body
15% of mentally healthy students report to sometimes hearing voices
6% believe they have transmitted thoughts into other peoples heads
Clinicians must interpret hallucinations in a cultural context
Disorganized thought and speech- often referred to as formal thought disorder-
tendency to slip from one topic to a unrelated topic with little coherent transition –
known as derailment or loosening of associations
May answer questions with comments that are barely related to the question
Word salad- person’s speech is so disorganized as to be totally incoherent to the
listener
Neologism- person may make up words that only mean something to only him/
her
Clangs- person may make associations between words that are based on the
sounds of the words rather than the content
Perseverate- saying the word over and over
Disorganized thought and speech is related to fundamental deficits in cognition
and attention
Deficit in smooth pursuit eye movement (eye tracking)
Cognitive and attention deficits observed in schizophrenia may be relatively
independent of the symptoms of schizophrenia (no correlation)
Deficits in the working memory- cannot have capacity to hold information in
memory and manipulate it
Make it difficult for people with schizophrenia to suppress unwanted or irrelevant
information or to pay attention to relevant information
Working memory deficits – impairs their ability to learn and retrieve new
information
Contribute to difficulties in reasoning, communication and problem solving in
people with schizophrenia
Memory deficits are so comprehensive and complex that no single model can
account for the heterogeneity of memory dysfunction in schizophrenia
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Document Summary

Schizophrenia: over 90% of patients with schizophrenia seek treatment in mental-health hospital a year. In canada to annual cost of schizophrenia is estimated $ 2. 02 billion dollars: total economic burden is . 85 billion, most develop it in their late teens and early adult. In canada 0. 5 to 2% of the population has been diagnosed with schizophrenia- spectrum disorder: schizophrenia is one of the most stigmatized psychological disorder, majority of people with schizophrenia live with family or alone. Symptoms, diagnosis, and prognosis of schizophrenia: two types of symptoms, type 1- positive-delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thought and speech, disorganized or catatonic behaviour, psychotic symptoms that occur in the absence of mania and depression, it is schizophrenia. Tactile hallucination (outside of the body)- perception that something is happening to the outside of one"s body: somatic (inside of the body)- perception that something is happening to the inside www. notesolution. com of one"s body. 15% of mentally healthy students report to sometimes hearing voices.

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