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PSY240H1 Chapter Notes -Brief Psychotic Disorder, Schizoaffective Disorder, Thought Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY240H1
Professor
Martha Mc Kay

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Chapter XI: Schizophrenia
Psychosis: the inability to distinguish between real and unreal.
Schizophrenia
At least one month of acute symptoms of delusions,
hallucinations, disorganized thought and speech,
disorganized behaviour, and negative symptoms
and at least six months of some symptoms of
disorder
Schizophreniform disorder
Same symptoms as schizophrenia, lasting more
than one month but less than six months
Schizoaffective disorder
Symptoms of schizophrenia coinciding with
symptoms of depression or mania, but at least a
two-week period when only symptoms of
schizophrenia present
Delusional disorder
Evidence only of non-bizarre delusions (ex. one is
being followed/deceived_ of at least one months
duration; function at relatively high level
Brief psychotic disorder
Presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized
speech or behaviour for at least one day but less
than one month
Shared psychotic disorder
The individual in a close relationship with
someone who is delusional with similar delusions
(also known as folie a deux)
Substance-induced
psychotic disorder
Hallucinations or delusions caused by the direct
physiological effects of a substance (such as
cocaine)
Coping with Schizophrenia:
1. Sense of humour: cannot laugh at the person, but can laugh with the person
2. Acceptance of the illness: accept the reality that the disorder will not go away,
likely to place limitations on the family member, and will need active
management by the family. NOT giving up.
3. Family balance: achieve a balance of concern for the afflicted member and
appreciation for the needs of other family members
4. Expectations that are realistic: not to abandon all expectations, but have more
realistic expectations in respect to schizophrenia
Symptoms:
I. Positive Symptoms: presence of usual perceptions, thoughts or behaviour
- Also occur in other disorders like depression and bipolar disorder,
schizophrenics are also depressed or show tremendous mood swings

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Delusions
Beliefs that are highly unlikely and often simply impossible
- Can be simple and transient, often complex and elaborate
- Different types of delusions can coexist
- Types of delusions occur in all cultures, but the specific
content differ across cultures
Persecutory
delusions
False belief that oneself of ones loved
one are being persecuted, watched, or
conspired against by others (people they
know or higher authorities)
Delusion of
reference
Belief that random events are directed
at oneself
Mood disorder with
psychotic features
- Psychotic symptoms occur
only during periods of clear
depression or mania
Schizophrenia or
Schizoaffective disorder
- Psychotic symptoms occur
substantially in the absence
of depression or mania
OR
- Depression or mania does
not meet the criteria for a
diagnosis of a mood disorder
Delusions
- Impossible
- Preoccupied with the
beliefs (look for
evidence to support
their beliefs, convince
people, and take actions
based on them)
- Highyl resistant to
arugments
Self-Deceptions
- Not completely
implausible
- Think about them
occasionally, not
preoccupied
- typically acknowledge
that their beliefs may be
wrong
Psychotic
Depressed
Mood swings

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Grandiose
delusions
False belief that one has great power,
knowledge, or talent or that one is a
famous and powerful person
Delusions of being
controlled
Beliefs that ones thoughts, feelings, or
behaviours are being imposed or
controlled by an external force
Thought
broadcasting
Belief that ones thoughts are being
broadcast from ones mind for others to
hear
Thought insertion
Belief that another person or object is
inserting thoughts into ones head
Thought
withdrawal
Belief that thoughts are being removed
from ones head by another person or
object
Delusion of guilt or
sin
False belief that one has committed a
terrible act or is responsible for a
terrible event
Somatic delusions
False belief that ones appearance of
part of ones body is diseased of altered
Hallucinations
Unreal perceptual or sensory experiences that are bizarre and
troubling; not precipitated only by sleep deprivation, stress, or
drugs
- Types across all cultures, but specific content differs
Auditory
hallucination
Visual
hallucination
Tactile
hallucination
Somatic
hallucination
Disorganized
thought and
speech
Grossly disorganized patterns of speech
- Often referred to as a formal thought disorder
- Loosening of associations/derailment: Most common;
tendency to slip from one topic to a seemingly unrelated
topic withy little coherent transition
- Word Salad: when the persons speech is so disorganized as
to be incoherent to the listener
Neologisms
Clangs
Word Salad
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