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Chapter

PSY260H1 - memory 9


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY260H1
Professor
Jan Paulsson

Page:
of 6
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implicit'memory‐‐our!recollection!of!information!that!was!not!consciously!encoded!and!stored!
explicit'memory!is!our!recollection!of!information!that!has!been!consciously!encoded,!stored!and!
retrieved!
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includes!three!components:!
encoding‐‐processing!information!and!integrating!it!into!our!existing!storehouse!of!memory!
storage‐‐the!process!of!keeping!information!in!memory!
retrieval‐‐recalling!information!from!memory!when!it!is!required!
for!these!processes!to!be!activated,!the!organism!must!attend!to!certain!information!for!
further!processing‐‐called!attention'
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information!is!moved!into!memory!is!through:!
rote2rehearsal'which!involves!repeating!the!information!over!and!over!again!
elaborative2rehearsal'in!which!information!is!made!meaningful!by!linking!it!to!information!
already!in!our!long!term!memory!stores!
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the!serial!position!effect!involves!both!the!primacy!and!recency!effect!
the!primacy!effect‐‐words!at!the!beginning!of!a!list!will!be!remembered!better!because!more!
rehearsal!is!taking!place!
the!recency!effect‐‐words!at!the!end!of!a!list!will!be!remembered!best!of!all!because!they!are!most!
recently!placed!in!memory!
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Hermann!Ebbinghaus!developed!the!simple!principle:!the!amount!remembered!depends!on!the!
time!spend!learning!
rote2rehearsal'which!involves!repeating!the!information!over!and!over!again!
he!used!CVCs2(consonant‐vowel‐consonant!nonsense!words)!
the!more!time!he!practiced!the!CVCs!on!Day!1,!the!fewer!repetitions!required!on!Day!2!
developed!a!forgetting2curve—the!course!of!forgetting!is!initially!rapid,!then!levels!off!with!
time!
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Stage!1‐‐!sensory2memory'involves!storing!information!for!a!very!short!period!of!time:!
iconic!(visual)!memory!lasts!about!one!half!second.!
echoic!(auditory)!memory!last!about!three!to!five!seconds!
the!initial!tests!of!sensory!memory!involved!looking!at!visual!display!like!this!for!a!fraction!of!a!
second!and!then!being!asked!to!recall!all!the!letters:!
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subjects!could!consistently!only!remember!about!four!letters!
this!is!called!the!whole:report2method!
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George!Sperling!used!the!same!3!x!3!matrix!but!played!a!high,!medium!or!low!tone!when!the!
letters!were!flashed‐‐these!tones!corresponded!to!the!top,!middle!or!bottom!line!of!letters!
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subjects!consistently!remembered!all!three!letters,!regardless!of!what!tone!was!played!during!the!
experiment!
Sperling’s!method!is!called!the!partial:report2method!
this!helped!to!establish!nine!items!as!the!capacity!for!sensory!memory!
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the!whole‐report!method!failed!because,!by!the!time!subjects!reported!four!letters,!the!rest!of!the!
letters!had!faded!from!memory!
the!partial‐report!method!eliminated!this!memory!fade!
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Stage!2‐‐!short2term2memory,!or”!working!memory”,!briefly!stores!and!processes!selected!
information!from!the!sensory!registers!
research!indicates:!
STM!has!limited!storage!capacity!
STM!can!store!5‐9!chunks!of!information.!
chunking!involves!grouping!information!into!meaningful!units!for!easier!handling,!like!
area!codes!or!zip!codes!
information!in!STM!is!forgotten!in!15‐20!seconds!if!it!is!not!rehearsed!
phonological!(or!acoustical)!encoding!is!the!predominant!means!by!which!information!is!
stored!in!STM!
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Stage!3‐‐!long2term2memory!stores!information!indefinitely!and!has!an!unlimited!capacity.!
research!has!indicated!specific!qualities!of!long!term!memory:!
some!psychologists!believe!the!information!is!never!truly!forgotten!but!that!it!just!cannot!be!
accessed!in!LTM!
some!psychologists!believe!that!our!memories!about!specific!events!are!fused!with!our!hopes,!
expectations!and!unique!perspectives!so!that!they!are!often!quite!different!from!the!actual!
event!
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there!are!four!types!of!LTM:!
procedural2memory‐‐contains!learned!associations!between!stimuli!and!responses,!like!how!to!
tie!your!shoes!or!drive!a!car!
semantic2memory‐‐stores!general!facts!and!information,!like!information!you!need!to!learn!for!
a!test!
episodic2memory‐‐stores!more!specific!information!that!has!personal!meaning,!like!going!on!
your!first!date!
declarative2memory‐‐our!memory!of!day‐to‐day!conversations!and!events!
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eidetic2imagery::commonly!called!photographic!memory,!this!is!the!ability!to!recall!specific!details!
of!information!
flashbulb2memory::this!is!a!vivid!recollection!of!a!significant!event!from!episodic!memory!
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explicit2methods!of!retrieval!from!LTM:!
include!recognition!and!recall!
usually!entail!information!in!semantic!memory!
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recognition::identifying!previously!learned!material!
for!example,!multiple!choice!tests!where!there!is!a!question!followed!by!four!or!five!possible!
answers!
easier!than!recall!because!most!or!all!of!the!retrieval!cues!are!present!
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recall‐‐coming!up!the!information!purely!from!memory!
more!difficult!because!fewer!retrieval!cues!are!available!
two!types!of!recall!tasks:!
free2recall!allows!the!subject!to!recall!information!in!any!order!(e.g.!words!memorized!from!a!
list!in!any!order)!
serial2recall!requires!the!subject!to!recall!information!in!a!specific!order!(e.g.!words!
memorized!from!a!list!in!the!order!in!which!they!appear!on!the!list)!
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implicit2methods‐‐involve!the!inner!workings!of!memory!organization!and!recall!that!are!not!so!
overt!
one!foundation!of!learning!theory!is!that!memory!will!increase!the!more!you!review!the!material‐‐
subsequent!learning!of!the!material!is!easier!and!takes!less!time!
research!has!also!found!that!subjects!that!have!suffered!retrograde2amnesia!have!still!shown!
recall!abilities!from!procedural!memory‐‐their!episodic!memory!surrounding!the!event!is!what!is!
typically!affected!
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