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Chapter

PSY260H1 Chapter Notes -Biofeedback, Habituation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY260H1
Professor
Jan Paulsson

Page:
of 8
Learning(
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Learning(
a!relatively!permanent!change!in!behavior!due!to!practice!and!experience!
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learning:!
is!not!always!observed!but!can!be!hidden!(latent&learning)!
is!not!always!consistent!!
indicates!a!tendency!to!respond,!not!necessarily!a!specific!response!
depends!on!a!variety!of!environmental!and!physiological!!factors!!
can!be!unintentional!(incidental&learning)!!
!
Conditioning(
the!acquisition!of!fairly!defined!patterns!of!behavior!to!a!well‐defined!stimuli!!
there!are!two!types!of!conditioning:!!
classical&conditioning((as!known!as!Pavlovian!conditioning)!
operant&conditioning((also!known!as!instrumental!conditioning)!!
!
Classical(Conditioning(
attributed!to!Ivan!Pavlov((
occurs!when!an!organism!learns!to!transfer!a!response!from!one!stimulus!to!another!unlearned!
stimulus!
!
Basic(Elements(
unconditioned&stimulus!(UCS)!:!a!stimulus!that!invariably!causes!an!organism!to!respond!!
unconditioned&response!(UCR)!:!a!response!or!reaction!to!an!unconditioned!stimulus!!
conditioned&stimulus!(CS)!:!a!previously!neutral!stimulus!that,!when!paired!to!the!UCS,!elicits!a!
desired!response!in!an!organism!when!presented!alone!!
conditioned&response!(CR)!:!a!response!or!reaction!to!a!conditioned!stimulus!!
!
Pavlov’s(Experiment(
in!Pavlov's!classic!experiment,!dogs!would!naturally!salivate!(UCR)!to!the!presentation!of!food!
(UCS)!!
by!pairing!the!presentation!of!food!with!the!sound!of!a!bell!(CS),!the!sounding!of!the!bell!alone!
would!elicit!salivation!(CR)!in!the!dog!
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Pavlov’s(Experiment(Diagram(in(PowerPoint(
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Temporal(Relationship(
the!temporal!relationship!between!the!UCS!and!CS!is!important!
there!are!three!possible!relationships:!!
forward&pairing&(or!trace&conditioning)!:when!the!CS!is!presented!before!the!UCS‐‐this!is!the!
most!effective!method!!
backward&pairing!:when!the!CS!is!presented!after!the!UCS!!
simultaneous&pairing!:when!the!CS!is!presented!at!the!same!time!as!the!UCS!!
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Other(Theorists(and(Applications(
Watson!and!Rayner!
Little!Albert!was!conditioned!to!fear!the!appearance!of!a!white!rat!(CS)!by!pairing!it!with!a!
loud!noise!(UCS)!
the!response!in!both!cases!was!to!become!fearful!and!cry!
Watson!and!Rayner's!experiments!help!to!show!how!classical!conditioning!can!be!at!play!with!
phobias!
Wolpe!and!Rachman(
something!frightening!(a!loud!noise)!is!paired!with!a!previously!neutral!stimuli!(a!white!rat)!
and,!after!that,!that!stimulus!(white!rat)!becomes!the!focal!point!for!a!phobia!
M.E.P.!Seligman((
believes!in!preparedness,!that!objects!or!situations!toward!which!an!individual!develops!a!
phobia!are!"related!to!the!survival!of!the!human!species!through!the!long!course!of!evolution”!
objects!or!situations!that!do!not!relate!to!survival!are!not!as!likely!to!develop!into!a!phobia,!
which!Seligman!calls!contrapreparedness!
Wolpe(
desensitization&therapy‐‐uses!classical!conditioning!to!help!the!phobic!individual!by!gradually!
lessening!their!fears!of!objects!or!events!by!associating!them!slowly!with!more!positive!or!
neutral!thoughts!and!behaviors!
Mary!Cover!Jones!!
used!a!form!of!this!therapy!by!treating!a!child!to!no!longer!be!afraid!of!white!rat!
placed!a!rat!in!a!cage!in!the!same!room!as!the!child!but!fed!him!candy!while!the!cage!was!
moved!closer!and!closer!
ultimately,!the!child!replaced!his!fear!of!the!rat!with!positive!feelings!associated!with!candy.!!
!
Factors(in(Conditioning(
interstimulus&interval:!!the!time!between!the!presentation!of!the!UCS!and!the!CS!
if!this!is!too!long!or!too!short!an!amount!of!time!it!can!interfere!with!conditioning!!
intermittent&pairing:!an!inconsistency!in!the!presentation!of!the!UCS!and!the!CS!
this!will!reduce!the!rate!and!acquisition!of!the!conditioned!response!!
behavioral&definition:!!a!clear!definition!of!a!behavior!that!is!to!be!observed!and/or!changed!
through!conditioning!!
habituation:!!an!organism's!adaptation!to!surrounding!stimuli!so!that!is!no!longer!a!distraction!!
extinction:!!a!gradual!reduction!in!the!association!between!the!UCS!and!the!CS,!!typically!because!
they!are!no!longer!paired!together!to!a!point!where!the!UCS!and!CS!are!no!longer!associated!with!
one!another!
rest&period:!!when!the!CS!is!not!presented!with!the!UCS!for!a!period!of!time!!
spontaneous&recovery:!!the!instant!re‐association!after!the!passage!of!time!of!the!UCS!and!CS!
because!of!the!pairing!of!the!UCS!with!the!CS!
reconditioning:!!occurs!when!the!UCS!and!CS!are!again!paired!after!extinction!!
stimulus&generalization:!!the!response!to!a!different!but!similar!stimulus!!
stimulus&discrimination:!!the!response!to!only!a!specific!stimulus!and!not!to!other!similar!stimuli!
response&generalization:!!responding!in!a!different!way!but!that!is!similar!to!the!original!response!!
sensory!preconditioning:!!two!neutral!stimuli!are!paired!(e.g.!a!light!and!a!black!square)!and!both!
are!paired!with!an!UCS!(e.g.!food);!after!the!initial!pairing,!only!one!of!the!stimuli!(e.g.!light)!is!
paired!with!the!UCS,!eliciting!a!CR;!the!non‐paired!stimuli!(e.g.!black!square)!will!still,!however,!
elicit!a!CR!
Higher(Order(Conditioning(
higher&order&conditioning!(or!second;order&conditioning)!
involves!using!a!CS!as!an!UCS!to!further!condition!the!organism!
in!Pavlov's!experiment,!he!used!the!bell!as!an!UCS!to!train!his!dogs!to!salivate!to!the!sight!of!a!
black!square!(the!new!CS)!
!
Operant(Conditioning(
Edward!Lee!Thorndike!
Law&of&Effect!
behaviors!eliciting!a!pleasant!effect!will!be!"stamped!in"!and!behaviors!eliciting!an!unpleasant!
effect!will!be!"stamped!out"!!
B.F.!Skinner!!
operant&(or&instrumental)&conditioning!whereby!behavior!increases!when!a!reinforcer!is!
presented!and!decreases!when!a!punishment!is!carried!out!
Skinner's!classic!experiment‐‐a!rat!presses!a!bar!in!a!"Skinner!box"!which!delivers!a!food!
pellet!(positive!reinforcement),!thereby!reinforcing!subsequent!bar‐pressing!behavior.!
!
Types(of(Reinforcers(
positive&reinforcer:!!any!event!whose!presence!increases&the!likelihood!of!a!behavior!reoccurring!!
negative&reinforcer:!!any!event!whose!reduction!or!elimination!increases&the!likelihood!of!a!
behavior!reoccurring!!
punishment:!!any!event!whose!presence!decreases&the!likelihood!of!a!behavior!reoccurring!!
!
primary&reinforcer:!!one!that!is!rewarding!in!and!of!itself;!food!and!water!are!good!examples!of!
primary!reinforcers!
secondary&reinforcer:!!only!has!value!because!it!is!associated!with!a!primary!reinforcer;!money!is!
the!most!common!example!because!it!only!has!value!because!it!can!be!traded!for!something!the!
individual!wants!or!needs.!
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Principles(of(Effectiveness(
Four!principals!which!increase!the!effectiveness!of!a!reinforcer:!&
Principle&of&Size:!!the!larger!the!reinforcement,!the!more!likely!behavior!will!occur!!
Principle&of&Immediacy:!!the!more!immediate!the!reinforcement,!the!more!likely!behavior!will!
occur!!
Principle&of&Contingency:!!a!reinforcer!becomes!more!effective!when!it!is!only!achieved!by!the!
desired!behavior!!
Principle&of&Satiation:!!a!more!an!organism!is!deprived!of!a!reinforcer,!the!more!effective!it!
becomes((
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Schedules(of(Reinforcement(
Schedules!of!reinforcement!involve!two!main!types:!
ratio&schedules;;focus!on!a!desired!behavior!being!performed!in!order!to!receive!
reinforcement!(e.g.!having!your!dog!roll!over!and!giving!it!a!treat!for!the!behavior)!
interval&schedules‐‐not!concerned!with!the!amount!of!desired!behavior!but!reinforce!the!
organism!after!a!certain!time!interval!(e.g.!paychecks)!
!
There!are!four!main!schedules!of!reinforcement:!!
fixed&ratio‐‐the!correspondence!of!behavior!to!reinforcement!is!always!the!same!!
variable&ratio‐‐the!correspondence!of!behavior!to!reinforcement!varies!!
fixed&interval‐‐the!time!period!between!reinforcement!is!always!the!same!!
variable&interval‐‐the!time!period!between!reinforcement!varies!!
it!is!best!to!start!with!a!fixed!ratio!schedule!of!reinforcement!(1:1)!because!the!subject!tends!to!
catch!on!quickly!(called!continuous!reinforcement)!
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