PSY260H1 Chapter Notes -Libido, Phlegm

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Published on 18 Jul 2012
School
UTSG
Department
Psychology
Course
PSY260H1
Professor
Page:
of 8
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personality,is!an!individual's!unique!thoughts,!feelings!and!behavior!that!persist!over!time!and!
different!situations!
personality!theorists!attempt!to!describe!how!individuals!remain!consistent!in!their!thoughts,!
feelings!and!behaviors!
they!also!attempt!to!explain!how!people!differ!in!their!personalities!
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There!are!six!main!schools!of!thought!regarding!personality:!
psychodynamic:!focuses!on!unconscious!motives!and!structures!to!explain!personality!!
humanistic:!focuses!on!the!fundamental!goodness!of!people!and!their!attempts!to!strive!for!
higher!levels!of!functioning!!
constitution!(or!type):!proposes!a!relationship!between!body!type!and!personality!
characteristics!!
trait:!examines!stable!characteristics!of!the!person!that!help!explain!behavior!!
social2cognitive:!focuses!on!environmental!contingencies!and!accompanying!mental!processes!
to!explain!personality!!
behavioral:!focuses!on!the!fundamentals!of!learning!to!explain!behavior!
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the!most!well‐known!psychodynamic!theorist!if!Sigmund!Freud.!!
Freud!focused!on!the!power!of!inner!forces!as!motivators!to!shape!personality!
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he!believed!that!these!unconscious!motivations!could!be!examined!through!the!use!of!
psychoanalysis,!which!includes!three!main!techniques:!
free7association:!allowing!the!patient!to!say!whatever!comes!to!mind!!
dream7analysis:!attempts!to!examine!the!latent!(hidden)!content!of!a!dream!through!
examining!its!manifest!(remembered)!dream!elements!!
hypnosis:!a!state!of!suggestibility!induced!by!the!therapist!(learned!through!his!studies!with!
Jean!Martin!Charcot)!!
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through!his!association!with!his!mentor,!Josef!Breuer,!Freud's!psychodynamic!theory!is!based!
on!a!few!key!findings!of!Breuer's!that!Freud!elaborate!on:!
1. underlying!symptoms!can!be!relieved!through!the!expression!of!the!strangulated!affect,!
or!bring!these!unconscious!motives!to!the!surface‐‐the!process!of!purging!these!emotions!
is!called!catharsis!
2. the!symptoms!someone!displays!have!an!emotional!logic!and!the!key!to!psychoanalysis!is!
to!unlock!the!mysteries!of!these!symptoms!!
3. a!lot!of!abnormal!behaviors!are!a!result!of!emotionally!abrasive!experiences!in!our!
childhood;!they!unconsciously!grow!into!abnormal!behaviors!as!the!person!gets!older!
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Freud’s!theories!are!based!on!psychic!determinism,!or!the!assumption!that!our!early!life!
determines!our!behavior!and!unconscious!reactions.!!
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Freud!believed!we!all!had!certain!drives!and!instincts!which!guide!our!behavior:!
eros:!the!life!instinct!which!seeks!to!preserve!the!species;!hunger,!thirst!and!sex;!tied!to!the!
libido!!
libido:!our!sexual!energy!!
thanatos:!our!desire!to!return!to!the!womb;!manifested!in!aggressive!and!destructive!behavior!
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Freud!believed!that!everyone!progressed!through!five!stages!of!psychosexual!development!!
these!stages!are:!
oral!stage!(0‐1!years):!achieves!libidinal!satisfaction!from!oral!activities!such!as!eating!and!
sucking!!
anal!stage!(1‐3!years):!autonomy!is!developed!through!bladder!and!bowel!control!!
phallic!stage!(3‐6!years):!the!child!comes!to!develop!a!sexual!attachment!to!the!opposite!sexed!
parent!and!to!see!the!same!sexed!parent!as!a!rival!for!those!affections!!
Oedipus!Complex:!boys!want!to!possess!the!mother!and!see!their!father!as!a!sexual!rival!!
Electra!Complex:!girls!want!to!possess!the!father!and!see!their!mother!as!a!sexual!rival!!
latency!period!(6‐puberty):!a!period!of!sexual!rest!for!both!sexes!where!sex‐role!identities!
develop!!
genital!stage!(puberty!on):!a!reawakening!of!sexual!urges!and!a!desire!for!heterosexual!
relationships!!
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Freud!believed!that!the!mind!or!our!personality!was!made!up!of!three!constructs:!
the!id:!the!child!within!us;!the!primitive,!unconscious!part!of!our!mind!that!seeks!expression!of!
wishes!and!emotions!(called!the!pleasure!principle)!!
the!ego:!uses!the!reality!principle!to!satisfy!the!id!and!superego!safely!and!effectively!in!the!
real!world;!the!mediator!that!develops!with!experience!and!is!the!rational!part!of!our!mind!!
the!superego:!society's!values!and!morals;!our!conscience;!the!parent!within!us!which!is!
guided!by!the!idealistic!principle!
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Individuals!constantly!strive!to!present!their!best!self!and!reduce!anxiety!
Freud!called!this!preserving!ego!integrity7
To!do!this,!individuals!employ!a!variety!of!defense!mechanisms:!
repression:!involuntary!memory!loss!about!something!anxiety‐producing!!
suppression:!voluntarily!not!thinking!about!something!anxiety‐producing!!
denial:!not!facing!up!to!the!reality!of!a!situation!!
rationalization:!making!up!excuses!for!our!actions!!
displacement:!rechanneling!aggression!in!a!negative!way;!taking!our!frustrations!out!on!a!
substitute!person!or!object!!
sublimation!(also!called!compensation):!rechanneling!aggression!in!a!neutral!or!positive!way!!
projection:!putting!onto!others!our!own!tendencies,!motives!or!traits!!
reaction!formation:!behaving!outwardly!that!opposite!of!how!we!inwardly!feel!!
fantasy:!escaping!reality!through!daydreaming!or!using!the!imagination!!
procrastination:!putting!off!something!anxiety‐producing!until!a!later!time!!
fixation:!becoming!stuck!at!a!specific!stage!of!psychosexual!development!because!it!is!safer!for!
ego!integrity!!
regression:!returning!to!an!earlier!stage!of!psychosexual!development!
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neo2Freudians!refined!and!developed!Freud's!theories!
they!did!not!agree!that!our!libido!guided!the!majority!of!our!actions!but!found!other!sources!for!
our!motives!
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Carl!Jung!was!Freud's!handpicked!successor!in!the!field!of!psychodynamic!theory‐‐he!differed!
from!Freud!on!several!fundamental!issues.!
Jung!believed!that!our!personality!or!mind!was!made!up!of!three!constructs.!!
he!differed,!however,!from!Freud's!concepts!of!the!id,!ego!and!superego.!Jung's!three!components!
were:!
conscious!ego:!our!consciousness!awareness!of!ourselves!and!how!we!present!our!self!to!the!
outside!world;!Freudian!defense!mechanisms!are!employed!to!preserve!ego!integrity!!
personal!unconscious:!motives!and!behaviors!that!are!unique!to!the!individual!hidden!away!in!
the!unconscious!!
collective!unconscious:!racial!memory;!our!understanding!of!mankind's!past;!our!intuitive!
tendencies!toward!universal,!reoccurring!symbols!called!archetypes!
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some!of!the!more!notable!archetypal!characters!found!in!literature!are:!
hero:!saves!the!day;!defeats!evil;!protects!the!weak!!
mother:!surrounds,!encompasses!and!protects!the!individual;!can!be!both!a!person!or!an!
institution!!
shadow:!the!dark!side!of!our!nature;!our!hidden,!bad!tendencies!we!do!not!like!to!acknowledge!!
trickster/magician:!plays!sly!pranks!and!malicious!tricks;!usually!represented!as!half!man,!half!
animal!!
child2god:!an!individual!who!has!powers!or!knowledge!beyond!their!years!!
anima:!the!projection!of!femininity!from!a!man's!collective!unconscious;!seeing!in!others!our!
own!opposite!sexed!characteristics!!
animus:!the!projection!of!masculinity!from!a!woman's!collective!unconscious;!seeing!in!others!
our!own!opposite!sexed!characteristics!!
persona:!the!Greek!word!for!"mask;"!the!different!faces!we!put!on!in!different!environments!!
self:!the!desire!for!unity!where!the!personal!and!collective!unconscious!intersect!
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Document Summary

Psychodynamic: sigmund freud: personality is an individual"s unique thoughts, feelings and behavior that persist over time and different situations, personality theorists attempt to describe how individuals remain consistent in their thoughts, feelings and behaviors they also attempt to explain how people differ in their personalities, there are six main schools of thought regarding personality: Jean martin charcot) through his association with his mentor, josef breuer, freud"s psychodynamic theory is based on a few key findings of breuer"s that freud elaborate on: underlying symptoms can be relieved through the expression of the strangulated affect, or bring these unconscious motives to the surface the process of purging these emotions is called catharsis, the symptoms someone displays have an emotional logic and the key to psychoanalysis is to unlock the mysteries of these symptoms, a lot of abnormal behaviors are a result of emotionally abrasive experiences in our childhood; they unconsciously grow into abnormal behaviors as the person gets older.