PSY270H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Anterograde Amnesia, Long-Term Potentiation, Memory Consolidation

23 views9 pages
6 Apr 2013
School
Department
Course
Professor
Chapter 6 (Long-term Memory)
Korsakoff’s syndrome
caused by prolonged deficiency of vitamin B
the deficiency leads to the destruction of the areas of the frontal and temporal lobes,
which causes severe impairments to memory
Short term memory (STM) and long term memory (LTM)
they work closely together
conversation STM holds the exact wording of the statement; the ability to
understand the sentence depends on retrieving, from LTM, the meaning of each
of the words that make up the sentence
Distinctions between STM and LTM
experiment by Murdoch
the distinction between the STM and LTM was studied
participants were given a list of words to remember
Serial-position curve the memory is better for words in the beginning of the list and
in the end of the list
Primacy effect memory for words presented in the beginning of the list
Explanation people had time to rehearse the words and transfer them to LTM;
as more words are presented the attention is spread and less rehearsal is possible
for later words
To increase the effect people were presented with the words ore slowly so
there is more time for rehearsal
Recency effect memory for words in the end of the list
Explanation words are still in STM
To decrease the effect participants were told to count backwards after hearing
the last words; the count allowed time for the information to be lost from STM;
the counting eliminated the effect
no evidence that LTM and STM are separate processes; there could be one process that
handles both recent and later events evidence that LTM and STM are two separate
processes:
Neuropsychological evidence
study of patients have established double dissociation between LTM and STM:
1. STM is intact, LTM is impaired
Clive Wearing lost memory due to viral encephalitis
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
functioning STM, cant form new LTM
H.M lost memory after surgeons removed his hippocampus to eliminate epileptic
seizures
functioning STM, cant form new LTM
2. LTM is intact, STM is impaired
reduced digit span (the number of digits she could remember) typical span is between 5
and 8 digits, hers was 2
- the recency effect in the serial position curve was reduced
- functioning LTM, STM is impaired
evidence STM and LTM are caused by different mechanisms, which can act
independently
Coding in LTM
comparing the way info is stored in the two systems
there are 3 types of encoding:
1. auditory sound
2. visual appearance
3. semantic - meaning
some
semantic encoding occurs in STM but its
predominant
type of encoding for LTM
experiment reading of passage
participants read the passage, were given 4 sentences and asked which one
occurred in the passage
some correctly identified the first one many said that third and forth one
appeared in the passage (the meaning was the same but the wording was
different)
specific wording is forgotten while the meaning is remembered
evidence STM and LTM are distinct memories
Types of LTM
there are two types of LTM:
1. Declarative Memory
our
conscious
recollection of events we have experienced or facts we have learned
divided into (based on the types of
info
; Tulving said they are distinguished based on the
type of
experience
):
1. Episodic Memory
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
memory for personal events in life (ie: visiting your grandfather’s house when you were
10)
involves mental time travel Tulving describes this as “self-knowing” or
“remembering” (idea that remembering always involves mental time travel)
mental time travel does not guarantee that the memory is accurate
2. Semantic Memory
involves facts and knowledge (ie: knowledge how the automobile engine works or the
names of famous painters)
is not tied to any specific personal experience
does not involve mental time travel Tulving describes this as “knowing” (idea that
knowing does not involve mental time travel)
separation between episodic and semantic memory:
Neuropsychological evidence
1. Semantic memory is intact, episodic memory is impaired
K.C suffered severe damage to the hippocampus after the motorcycle
accident
lost his episodic memory cant remember any of the events from the
past
semantic memory is intact remembers where the eating utensils are
located in the kitchen etc.
2. Episodic memory is intact, semantic memory is impaired
Italian woman suffered the attack of encephalitis
lost her semantic memory could not recognize famous people, could
not remember that Italy was involved in WW2
episodic memory is intact could remember things that happened in the
past
Brain imagining evidence
experiment by Levine while in MRI scanner participants listened to the
facts that elicited retrieval of episodic and semantic memories
episodic and semantic memories caused different patterns of brain
activity
connection between episodic and semantic memory
episodic memory can be lost leaving semantic
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 9 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Caused by prolonged deficiency of vitamin b. The deficiency leads to the destruction of the areas of the frontal and temporal lobes, which causes severe impairments to memory. Short term memory (stm) and long term memory (ltm) Conversation stm holds the exact wording of the statement; the ability to understand the sentence depends on retrieving, from ltm, the meaning of each of the words that make up the sentence. The distinction between the stm and ltm was studied. Participants were given a list of words to remember. Serial-position curve the memory is better for words in the beginning of the list and in the end of the list. Primacy effect memory for words presented in the beginning of the list. Explanation people had time to rehearse the words and transfer them to ltm; as more words are presented the attention is spread and less rehearsal is possible for later words.

Get access

Grade+20% OFF
$8 USD/m$10 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Grade+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
40 Verified Answers
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Class+
Homework Help
Study Guides
Textbook Solutions
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
Booster Class
30 Verified Answers