PSY270H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Visual Cortex, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Roger Shepard

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6 Apr 2013
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Chapter 9 (Visual Imagery)
History of imagery
imagery “seeing” in the absence of visual stimulus
Wundt
founder of the first laboratory of psychology
images are one of the three basic elements of consciousness, along with sensations and
feelings
proposed that studying images was a way of studying thinking
gave rise to imageless-thought debate
some psychologists took up Aristotle’s idea that “though is impossible without
image”, others said the opposite
Galton observed that people who were not capable of forming visual images
were still capable of thinking
arguments for and against ended with behaviourism John Wilson (founder of
behaviourism) images are “mythological and unproven” thus not worthy of
study
cognitive revolution (1950s)
Paivio
found out that memory for concrete nouns (hotel-student) is better than
for abstract nouns (knowledge-honour)
conceptual peg hypothesis concrete words create mental images that
other words can “hang onto” (boat-hat: create image of the boat and
where the hat could be placed)
Roger Shepard (used mental chronoetry)
participants saw pairs of different pictures and had to, as quickly as
possible, say if they were the same; the time it took to decide was directly
proportional to the degree of rotation shows that people were mentally
rotating the pics to see if they matched
Imagery and perception
the idea that there is special correspondence between imagery and perception is
supported by Kosslyn experiments involving mental scanning, where participants had to
create mental images and then scan them in their minds
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Document Summary

Imagery seeing in the absence of visual stimulus. Founder of the first laboratory of psychology. Images are one of the three basic elements of consciousness, along with sensations and feelings. Proposed that studying images was a way of studying thinking. Gave rise to imageless-thought debate some psychologists took up aristotle"s idea that though is impossible without image , others said the opposite. Galton observed that people who were not capable of forming visual images were still capable of thinking. Arguments for and against ended with behaviourism john wilson (founder of behaviourism) images are mythological and unproven thus not worthy of study. Paivio found out that memory for concrete nouns (hotel-student) is better than for abstract nouns (knowledge-honour) Conceptual peg hypothesis concrete words create mental images that other words can hang onto (boat-hat: create image of the boat and where the hat could be placed)

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