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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY270H1
Professor
Christine Burton

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Chapter 3 – Perception
Pattern-Recognition Systems
oHow do we recognize patterns?
1 theory states humans have 2 systems for recognizing patterns
First system specialized in recognition of parts of objects and in assembling those parts to
distinctive wholes (i.e. flower= the stamen, pistil, stem, petals etc.)
Second system specialized in recognizing larger configuration (i.e. flower=beauty and
form)
oSecond system most likely used for face recognition (i.e. recognize him or her on
a daily basis using configurations, sometimes wont notice small changes (i.e. hair
cut etc)
Face recognition occurs, at least in part, in the fusiform gyrus of the temporal lobe
Face recognition occurs in early life (infants track movement of photos of human faces
more rapidly than other stimuli)
TASK – shown objects, faces and houses
oName of the person paired with face, name of owner paired with houses
oAfter 6 trials, asked to recognize the faces or houses as a whole (i.e. show just
nose or ear, window or door)
oRESULT – people were better at recognizing houses, whether presented with
parts or wholes, people had difficulty recognizing PARTS of faces than in whole
faces.
oFace recognition depends on configurational system
oEmotion increases activation in fusiform area when people are processing faces (evident in autism,
impaired emotional recognition, less fusiform gyrus is active compared to normal population)
oFusiform gyrus only activated when looking at faces not houses
oExpert-individuation hypothesis – fusiform gyrus is activated when one examines items with which one
has visual expertise
oProsopagnosia – inability to recognize faces – damage to some configurational system
Theoretical Approaches to Perception
Direct Perception – the array of information in our sensory receptors, including the sensory context, is all we
need to perceive anything
oWe do not need higher cognitive processes or anything else to mediate between our sensory experiences
and our perceptions
oUse contextual information directly
Bottom-Up and Top-Down Theories
oTheories starting with precssing of low-level features are termed bottom-up theories – which are data
driven (stimulus driven) theories, incoming information.
oTop-down theories – driven by high-level cognitive processes, existing knowledge, and prior expectation
that influence perception
oThere are 4 main types of bottom-up theories:
Template theories – we have stored in our minds a set of templates (highly detailed models for
patterns we potentially might recognize)
We recognize a pattern by comparing it with our set of templates, if matches=pattern is
perceived
Fail to explain complex stimuli (i.e. same letter but different font styles, need TOO many
templates)
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Description
Chapter 3 Perception Pattern-Recognition Systems o How do we recognize patterns? 1 theory states humans have 2 systems for recognizing patterns First system specialized in recognition of parts of objects and in assembling those parts to distinctive wholes (i.e. flower= the stamen, pistil, stem, petals etc.) Second system specialized in recognizing larger configuration (i.e. flower=beauty and form) o Second system most likely used for face recognition (i.e. recognize him or her on a daily basis using configurations, sometimes wont notice small changes (i.e. hair cut etc) Face recognition occurs, at least in part, in the fusiform gyrusf the temporal lobe Face recognition occurs in early life (infants track movement of photos of human faces more rapidly than other stimuli) TASK shown objects, faces and houses o Name of the person paired with face, name of owner paired with houses o After 6 trials, asked to recognize the faces or houses as a whole (i.e. show just nose or ear, window or door) o RESULT people were better at recognizing houses, whether presented with parts or wholes, people had difficulty recognizing PARTS of faces than in whole faces. o Face recognition depends on configurational system o Emotion increases activation in fus
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