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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY270H1
Professor
Christine Burton

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Chapter 5: Memory: Models and Research Methods
Memory: retain and draw on our past experiences to use that information in present
oAs a process, memory refers to dynamic mechanisms associated with storing, retaining, and
retrieving information about past experience
3 common operations of memory: encoding, storage, retrieval
oEncoding: transform sensory data into a form of mental representation
oStorage: keep encoded information in memory
oRetrieval: pull or use information stored in memory
Tasks Used for Measuring Memory:
Recall versus Recognition Tasks
Recall: produce a fact, a word, or other item from memory ie. Fill in the blanks, essay questions
Recognition: you select or otherwise identify an item as being one that you learned previously ie.
MC/ true-false
3 main types of recall tasks:
oSerial recall: recall items in exact order in which they were presented
oFree recall: recall items in any order you choose
oCued recall (paired-associates recall): first shown items in pairs, but during recall you are
cued with only one member or each pair and are asked to recall each mate
Relearning: the number of trials it takes to learn once again items that were learned at some time
in past
oRats demonstrated shorter learning times for motor movements they had previously
learned
Recognition memory usually much better than recall
Recall tasks generally elicit deeper levels of information processing than recognition ones
Implicit versus Explicit memory Tasks
Explicit memory: participants engage in conscious recollection. Ie. Recall or recognize words, facts,
pictures from particular prior set of items
Implicit memory: use information but are not consciously aware that we are doing so. Ie. Reading a
book
Infants and older adults often tend to have relatively poor explicit memory but implicit memory
that is comparable to young adults
Priming: facilitation of your ability to utilize missing information
In general, participants perform better when they have seen the word on recently presented list,
although they have not been explicitly instructed to remember words from that list
Cerebellum of brain seems to be centrally involved in procedural memory
oRotary-pursuit task requires participants to maintain contact between L-shaped stylus and
small rotating disk. With same disk and speed, participants do well, with different
disk/speed, do poorly
oMirror-tracing task, with practice, participants become quite efficient and accurate
One of first and widely recognized models is process-dissociation model
oAssumes that implicit and explicit memory both have role in virtually every response, only
one task is needed to measure both processes
Traditional Model of Memory
2 structures of memory by William James:
oPrimary: holds temporary information currently in use
oSecondary: holds information permanently or at least for very long time
Atkinson & Shiffrin proposed 3 memory stores:
oSensory store: capable of storing relatively limited amounts of information for very brief
periods
www.notesolution.com
oShort-term: capable of storing information for somewhat longer periods but also of
relatively limited capacity
oLong-term: very large capacity, capable of storing information for very long periods, even
indefinitely
Stores: structures for holding information
Memory: information stored in structures
Atkinson & Shiffrin not saying 3 stores are distinct physiological structures but hypothetical
constructs: concepts that are not themselves directly measurable or observable but that serve as
mental models for understanding how psychological phenomenon works
Sensory Store
The initial repository of much information that eventually enters short- and long-term stores
Iconic store: discrete visual sensory register that holds information for very short periods
oStored in form of icons- visual images that represent something
Visual information appears to enter memory system through iconic store
othis store holds visual information for very short periods
page 183-186 for Sperlings experiments
Short-Term Store
most of us have little or no introspective access to our sensory memory stores
holds memories for seconds or up to couple of minutes
Atkinson-Shiffrin: short term store holds only a few items and has available some control processes
that regulate flow of information to and from long term store
Material remains in short term store for about 30 seconds, unless it is rehearsed to retain it
Information is store acoustically (by the way it sounds) rather than visually (by the way it looks)
Capacity appears to be about seven plus/minus 2 items
Number of syllables also affect the number of items we can recall- longer the syllables, fewer items
we can remember
Storage of visual information depends on numbers of objects rather than features
Capacity of visual information is 4
Long-Term Store
Hold information we need to get us by in our day to day lives ie. Names, schedules, where we keep
things
Limit and capacity is unknown
Permastore: refers to very long-term storage of information, such as knowledge of foreign language
The Levels-of-Processing Model
Levels of processing framework: postulates that memory does not comprise 3 or even any specific
number of separate stores but rather varies along a continuous dimension in terms of depth of
encoding
Infinite number of levels or processing (LOP) at which items can be encoded
Experiment to support LOP: CogLab- deeper the level of processing, higher level of recall achieved
LOP can be applied to nonverbal stimuli
oBurgess & Weaver: faces that were deeply processed were better recognized on subsequent
test than those that were studied at lower level of processing
Self-reference effect: participants show very high levels of recall when asked to related words
meaningfully to themselves by determining whether words describe them
oEven words that participants assess as not describing themselves are recalled at high levels
oSelf-reference effect for positive traits and not negative traits
2 strategies for elaborating the encoding:
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 5: Memory: Models and Research Methods Memory: retain and draw on our past experiences to use that information in present o As a process, memory refers to dynamic mechanisms associated with storing, retaining, and retrieving information about past experience 3 common operations of memory: encoding, storage, retrieval o Encoding: transform sensory data into a form of mental representation o Storage: keep encoded information in memory o Retrieval: pull or use information stored in memory Tasks Used for Measuring Memory: Recall versus Recognition Tasks Recall: produce a fact, a word, or other item from memory ie. Fill in the blanks, essay questions Recognition: you select or otherwise identify an item as being one that you learned previously ie. MC true-false 3 main types of recall tasks: o Serial recall: recall items in exact order in which they were presented o Free recall: recall items in any order you choose o Cued recall (paired-associates recall): first shown items in pairs, but during recall you are cued with only one member or each pair and are asked to recall each mate Relearning: the number of trials it takes to learn once again items that were learned at some time in past o Rats demonstrated shorter learning times for motor movements they had previously learned Recognition memory usually much better than recall Recall tasks generally elicit deeper levels of information processing than recognition ones Implicit versus Explicit memory Tasks Explicit memory: participants engage in conscious recollection. Ie. Recall or recognize words, facts, pictures from particular prior set of items Implicit memory: use information but are not consciously aware that we are doing so. Ie. Reading a book Infants and older adults often tend to have relatively poor explicit memory but implicit memory that is comparable to young adults Priming: facilitation of your ability to utilize missing information In general, participants perform better when they have seen the word on recently presented list, although they have not been explicitly instructed to remember words from that list Cerebellum of brain seems to be centrally involved in procedural memory o Rotary-pursuit task requires participants to maintain contact between L-shaped stylus and small rotating disk. With same disk and speed, participants do well, with different diskspeed, do poorly o Mirror-tracing task, with practice, participants become quite efficient and accurate One of first and widely recognized models is process-dissociation model o Assumes that implicit and explicit memory both have role in virtually every response, only one task is needed to measure both processes Traditional Model of Memory 2 structures of memory by William James: o Primary: holds temporary information currently in use o Secondary: holds information permanently or at least for very long time Atkinson & Shiffrin proposed 3 memory stores: o Sensory store: capable of storing relatively limited amounts of information for very brief periods www.notesolution.com
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