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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

2 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY270H1
Professor
Christine Burton

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Chapter 6: Memory Processes
Main process of memory comprise of 3 common operations:
oEncoding: how you transform a physical, sensory input into a kind of representation that
can be placed in memory
oStorage: how you retain encoded information in memory
oRetrieval: how you gain access to information stored in memory
Encoding and Transfer of Information
Forms of Encoding
Short-Term Storage
Encode visually presented in letters by how they sound not by how they look
Semantic code: based on word meaning
Primarily acoustic, but some secondary semantic encoding
Sometimes visual encoding used, but decay fasting than acoustic encoding
Long-Term Storage
Most information stored in LTM is primarily semantic
Levels of processing influence LTM
Evidence for visual encoding
Acoustic information can be encoded
Transfer of Information from STM to LTM
Moving information depend on if information involves declarative or nondeclarative memory
Some forms of nondeclarative memory are highly volatile and decay quickly like priming and
habiutation
Some are more readily, as result of repeated practice like procedural memory (tying shoes)
Entrance to long term declarative memory may occur in variety of process:
oAttending to information to comprehend it
oMaking connections between new and old information
Consolidation: process of integrating new information into stored information
Stress can impair memory functioning, it can also help enhance consolidation of memory through
release of hormones
To preserve or enhance integrity of memories during consolidation, may use various metamemory
strategies
Metamemory strategies: involve reflecting on own memory with a view to improve our memory,
they are one component of metacognition: ability to think about and control own processes of
thought and ways of enhancing our thinking
Rehearsal
Repeated recitation of an item
May be overt: aloud and obvious to anyone watching
Covert: silent and hidden
Peoples memory for information depends on how they acquire it
Distributed practice: learning in which various sessions are spaced over time. Memory tends to be
good
Massed practice: sessions crammed together in very short space of time. Memory not as good.
Spacing effect: the greater the distribution of learning trials over time, the more the participants
remembered over long periods
REM stage sleep improves memory
Hippocampus acts as rapid learning system
Total-time hypothesis: amount of learning depends on the amount of time spent mindfully
rehearsing material
To move information in LTM, must engage in elaborative rehearsal
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Description
Chapter 6: Memory Processes • Main process of memory comprise of 3 common operations: o Encoding: how you transform a physical, sensory input into a kind of representation that can be placed in memory o Storage: how you retain encoded information in memory o Retrieval: how you gain access to information stored in memory Encoding and Transfer of Information Forms of Encoding Short-Term Storage • Encode visually presented in letters by how they sound not by how they look • Semantic code: based on word meaning • Primarily acoustic, but some secondary semantic encoding • Sometimes visual encoding used, but decay fasting than acoustic encoding Long-Term Storage • Most information stored in LTM is primarily semantic • Levels of processing influence LTM • Evidence for visual encoding • Acoustic information can be encoded Transfer of Information from STM to LTM • Moving information depend on if information involves declarative or nondeclarative memory • Some forms of nondeclarative memory are highly volatile and decay quickly like priming and habiutation • Some are more readily, as result of repeated practice like procedural memory (tying shoes) • Entrance to long term declarative memory may occur in variety of process: o Attending to information to comprehend it o Making connections between new and old information • Consolidation: process of integrating new information into stored information • Stress can impair memory functioning, it can also help enhance consolidation of memory through release of hormones • To preserve or enhance integrity of memories during consolidation, may use various metamemory strategies • Metamemory strategies: involve reflecting on own memory with a view to improve our memory, they are one component of metacognition: ability to think about and control own processes of thought and ways of enhancing our thinking Rehearsal • Repeated recitation of an item • May be overt: aloud and obvious to anyone watching • Covert: silent and hidden • People’s memory for information depends on how they acquire it • Distributed practice: learning in which various sessions are spaced over time. Memory tends to be good • Massed practice: sessions crammed together in very short space of time. Memory not as good. • Spacing effect: the greater the distribution of learning trials over time, the more the participants remembered over long periods • REM stage sleep improves memory • Hippocampus acts as rapid learning system • Total-time hypothesis: am
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