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Chapter 4

PSY270H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Inattentional Blindness, Change Blindness, Master Sergeant


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY270H1
Professor
Gillian Rowe
Chapter
4

Page:
of 3
Attention: the ability to focus on a specific stimuli or locations
oPurpose:
Select important items in the environment for further processing while ignoring items of less importance
To facilitate reactions to events/situations
Involves both automatic and controlled processes
Response influenced by various factors (i.e. stimulus/response compatibility)
oTypes:
Sustained (vigilance) attention: continuously monitoring an environment to detect target signals (change)
Selective (focused): focusing on one element and ignoring others; visual and auditory metaphors complement each other
Auditory filter metaphorVisual location based: spotlight, zoom lens; object based: glue
Dichotic listening:
M: required to attend to one message and ignore the other; the attended
message must beshadowed repeated
R: participants could not report the content of the message in unattended
ear but knew there was a message and the gender of the speaker; however,
unattended ear is being processed at some level (i.e. cocktail party effect,
change in gender noticed, change in tone noticed)
Early selection model (Broadbent’s filter model):
(1)Bottleneck model: filter restricts info flow; filter restricts the large
amount of info available to a person so that only some of this info
gets through to the detector
(2)Filters message before incoming information is analyzed for
meaning
Spotlight metaphor:
omovable, having a small fixed diameter, cannot be divided
oThe spotlight is internal (or covert) : thespotlight location can be
different from where your eyes are fixated
oLocation based attention: how attention is directed to a specific
location or place
oPosners cuing paradigm is evidence:
(1)Covert attention based on precuing participant presented
with a cute that indicates where a stimulus is most likely to
appear
(2)M: fixate in the middle; the spatial cute is presented briefly
(valid, invalid, neutral); respond to target ASAP (reaction time
measured)
(3)R: observers reacted more rapidly on valid trails than on invalid
trials
(4)C: information processing more effected at the place where
attention is directed
Zoom Lens Metaphor:
oCan flexibly change the width of focus
oLaBerges study on wide vs. narrow focus
Glue Metaphor:
oObject based attention: directed to one place on an object the
enhancing effect of this attention spreads throughout the object
oAssociated with Treismans feature integration theory
oAttention as abindingmechanism
oAttentionglues together multiple features of objects
oConjunctive vs. feature search - single feature search = looking for
something different from a whole bunch of similar things (black vs.
white circles); conjoint search = looking for something different from
Detector:Filter: