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Chapter 10

PSY290H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Vestibulocochlear Nerve, Brain Damage, Neurotransmitter


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY290H1
Professor
Junchul Kim
Chapter
10

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Chapter 10 Brain Damage and Neuroplasticity
Causes of Brain Damage
o Brain tumors
Mass of cells or neoplasm
Meningiomas (between mininges) growing within their own membrane,
easy to identify, influence based on pressure they create, benign or
surgically removable
Infiltrating (grow through surrounding tissue) malignant or difficult to
destroy
May not always grow in brain i.e. metastic tumors (from one organ to
another)
Encapsulated tumors on cranial nerve VIII are acoustic neuromas
o Cerebrovascular Disorders: Strokes
Amnesia, aphasia (language problems), paralysis, and coma
Produces dead tissue called infarct surrounded by penumbra
Cerebral hemorrhage blood vessel rupture, bursting aneurysm (can be
congenital or owing to infections)
Cerebral ischemia disruption of blood to brain area by thrombosis,
embolism or arteriosclerosis
o Thrombosis a plug blocking blood flow
o Embolism clot carried by blood from a larger vessel
(formation site)
o Arteriosclerosis walls of vessel thicken, channels narrow
o Brain damage with stroke is consequence of excessive
release of excitatory amino acid NTs e.g. glutamate
o Three properties: takes a while to develop with no
immediate detectable damage, does not occur equally
(hippocampus), damage varies from structure to structure
blood vessel
blocked making
deprived neurons
overactive, causing
release of
glutamate
glutamate
overactivates
glutamate
receptors in
postsynaptic
neurons (NMDA) -
this causes a lot of
Na and Ca to enter
postsynaptic
neuron
Na and Ca in
excess trigger
release of even
more glutamate in
other neurons.
postsynaptic
neurons are then
at risk of dying
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o Closed-Head Injuries
Contusions cerebral circulatory system damage resulting in a
hematoma brain slams against skull and blood can accumulate between
dura mater and arachnoid membrane (subdural space), can occur on
opposite side of injury (countercoup injuries)
Concussion repeated can cause punch-drunk syndrome
o Infections of the Brain
Inflammation caused is called encephalitis
Bacteria
Formation of cerebral abscesses (pus)
Meningitis
Syphilis can cause general paresis
Viral
Rabies affinity for the nervous system
Mumps and Herpes can attack nervous system, but have no
affinity for an attach
o Neurotoxins
Heavy metals producing toxic psychosis
Tardive dyskensia caused by antipsychotics
Endogenous toxins example, some antibodies and sometimes as in
strokes glutamate functions as a neurotoxins
o Genetic Factors
Down syndrome
o Programmed Cell Death
Apoptosis
Neuropsychological Diseases
o Epilepsy
Repeated seizures; motor (convulsions involving tremors, rigidity, loss of
balance)
Caused by viruses, neurotoxins, tumors, blows to the head
Faults at inhibitory synapse i.e. synchronous burst firing
EEG diagnosis
Partial (simple or Jacksonian, and complex or temporal lobe) and
generalized; does not involve the entire brain and involve the entire brain
respectively
Generalized occur in many forms; grand mal (loss of consciousness,
equilibrium, convulsions of tonic-clonic), and petit mal (disruption of
consciousness, vacant look, fluttering eyes common in children)
o Parkiso’s Disease
Cognitive deficits, dementia
No single cause; genes, infections, strokes, tumors, injury, neurotoxins
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