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Chapter 13

PSY290H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone, Anterior Pituitary, Sex Steroid

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Junchul Kim

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Chapter 13 Hormones and Sex
Mamawawa you start to see maleness and femaleness as discrete
Endocrine glands; pineal, hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus,
adrenal, pancreatic, ovarian, testis
Stomach, liver, and intestine, and body far also release hormones
Two kinds of glands; exocrine (duct-release on body surface), and endocrine (hormones
into circulatory system)
Gonads; testes and ovaries. Responsible for the production of sperm cells and ova
Sperm Cell + Ovum Zygote
Each human cell has 23 pairs of chromosomes, sex cells contain half
Sex chromosomes; females (XX), males (XY)
Hormones have three classes
o Amino acid derivative hormones; epinephrine, adrenal medulla, tyrosine
o Peptide hormones and protein hormones (long and short chains)
o Steroid hormones (synthesized from cholesterol i.e. a fat molecule) influence
sexual development. They penetrate cell membranes b/c they are soluble, bind
to receptors in the cytoplast or nucleus
Sex steroids
o Created by gonads
o Androgens (testosterone) and estrogens (estradiol) and progestins
o Adrenal cortex releases small amounts of sex steroids
Tropic hormones are hormones which function to influence the release of hormones
from other glands
Pituitary tropic hormone e.g. gonadotropin which goes to gonads
Posterior pituitary; from an outgrowth of hypothalamic tissue on end of pituatry stalk
Anterior pituitary; part of same embryonic tissue that develops into roof of mouth
(releases the tropic hormones)
Female gonadal hormones follow a 28 day cycle i.e. menstrual cycle
Hypothalamus is the regulator of the anterior pituitary
Two mechanisms of hypothalamic control of pituitary
o Posterior Pituitary
Oxytocin stimulates contraction of uterus during labor and ejection of milk during
Vasopressin and Oxytocin
(major hormones) are
synthesized in CELL
BODIES of neurons in the
paraventricular nuclei and
supraoptic nuclei of the
Trasported along axons to
terminals in the posterior
pituatary and stored
Arrival of AP causes
release by neurosecretory
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