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Chapter 1

PSY322H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Group Dynamics, Appraisal Theory, The Stereotypes

Course Code
William Huggon

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Chapter 1: Introduction
The importance of studying prejudice and stereotype:
- A need to understand the negative influence such thinking has on the thoughts, feelings,
and behaviour
- How they relate to the targets of their prejudice
- Such negative attitudes form the basis for subsequent negative intergroup behaviour
Defining Stereotyping:
- Brigham (1971): a generalization about a group concerning a trait attribution, which
is considered to be unjustified by an observer
But any generalization about a group whether an observer believes it is justified or
Synonymous with the question of the accuracy of a stereotype controversial
- Hamilton & Trolier (1986): a cognitive structure that contains the perceivers knowledge,
beliefs, and expectations about a human group
Too broad
Sounds more like the definition of a schema (a cognitive structure that represents
knowledge about a concept or type of stimulus including its attributes and the
relations among those attributes)
- Ashmore & Del Boca (1981): A set of beliefs about the personal attributes of a group of
- Not regarded as good or bad, merely generalizations about a group
Cultural and Individual Stereotypes:
Cultural Steretype
- Shared or community-
wide patterns of belief
- Adjective rating scales
- The focus of early
Individual Stereotype
- The beliefs held by an
individual about the
characteristics of a group
- Measures in which the
respondent's answers are
restricted to the stereotype
content choices offered by
the measure
- The focus of
contemporary research

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Defining Prejudice:
- An evaluation, either positive or negative, toward a stimulus
Prejudice as Negative Affect
- Gardner (1994): a
evaluation of another stimulus
But an evaluation = attitude controversial
- Allport (1954): an antipathy [intense dislike] based upon a faulty and inflexible
generalization. It may be felt or expressed. It may be directed toward a group as a whole,
or toward an individual because he is a member of that group
Corresponds with the traditional view of an intergroup attitude as composed of
cognition, affect, and behaviour (prejudice = affective)
Focus on the negative affect toward to group limits the definition because
prejudice can also refer to positive prejudice in favour of ones ingroup
Prejudice as an Attitude
- Strangor, Sullivan, & Ford (1991): the best predictor of negative outgroup prejudice is not
negative feeligns about the out group but, rather, a lack of positive emotions
- Brewer (1998); Pettigrew & Meertens (1995): stronger forms of prejudice are more likely
to be based on strong negative emotions whereas more subtle types of prejudice may be
based on an absence of positive feelings about the outgroup
- Jackson et al. (1996): affect and behaviour were the strongest predictors of group
attitudes; the quality of an intergroup interaction therefore is most dependent on how
good people feel, not how well they think of group members
- Eagly & Diekman (2005): prejudice should be regarded as an attitude-in-context
Prejudice depends on the match (or lack thereof) between the social role into which
the stereotype individual is trying to fit and the beliefs of the perceiver about the
attributes that are required for success in that role
Prejudice is most likely to be displayed toward a disadvantaged group when that
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