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Chapter 4

PSY426H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Impulsivity, Demarcation Point, Delusional Disorder

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Jason Plaks

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Thinking and motivation
Kruglanski's theory: this theory illustrates a difference between the need for specific and non-specific
--> seizing – is a process that occurs before belief crystallization where those with a high need
for closure are frantically looking for a belief to latch on to
--> freezing – occurs once belief crystallization has occurred, in this process a high need for
closure induces a tendency to lock into that belief and adopt a more close minded approach to
any new information
What causes us to avoid closure
pressures such as the need to avoid invalidity
accountability – implicit or explicit expectation that one maybe called on to justify their beliefs
--> may amplify stereotypical thought
Aspects of knowledge construction
1) Motivated nature – theory that individuals seek knowledge in some topics and not others and
allocate resources to seeking knowledge in those specific domains
2) Social character – when various social entities are objects of knowledge construction efforts, in
other words, people are sometimes the means of supplying info whereby constructive ends are
The need for closure
the need for cognitive closure refers to an individual's desire for a firm answer to a question and
an aversion toward's ambiguity
A motivational continuum in regard to closure
closure may not be desired universally, it varies along a continuum
individual's at the need end of closure may show impulsivity, at the other end (avoiding
closure), individual's display reluctance to commit to a definite opinion
benefits of closure: removal of too much info processing, decisiveness
benefits of avoiding closure: for people who fear judgement and need to take time to make
Consequences of the need for closure: The urgency and performance tendency
general tendencies that the need for closure may instil
1. urgency tendency – tendency to seize on closure quickly
2. permanence tendency – desire to perpetuate closure, giving rise to dual inclination to
a) preserve/ freeze on past knowledge
b) to safeguard future knowledge
people under a heightened need for closure may process less info before committing to a
one implication of our seizing and freezing postulate is that those under a heightened need for
closure should base their judgements mainly on early or pre-existing cues rather than later info
The quest for epistemic permanence: consensus and consistency striving
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