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Chapter 4

PSY426H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Diana Baumrind, Immanence, Psychopathology

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Chapter 4 (The Socialization of Moral Judgment and Behavior in Cross-Cultural Perspective)
It does appear that the substance of morality-that is, the actual rules of ethical conduct, the
values and mores that govern behavior-is deeply embedded in specific cultural patterns
Anthropologists point to the structural function of values, which tends to be more stable than
their content. In this view, the most sophisticated and primitive cultures attend to the same
basic human needs. As a result, values are analyzed in terms of their common functional
purposes, and in such terms are seen to be equivalent despite gross differences in specific
Typology approaches have failed to specify the operational mechanisms by which broad
sociocultural influences make their impact on individual socialization
An integrative Model of Moral Development and Socialization
Two major emphases in modern psychological approaches to moral development have been the
stage and type analyses represented by Kohlberg and Bronfenbrenner
Kohlbergs theory postulates six hierarchical developmental stages of moral reasoning which are
held to be inextricably tied to cognitive development, invariant in order, and generated by the
interplay of maturation and general environmental experience
Bronfenbrenners analysis describes five types of moral judgement and behavior
o Self-oriented: motivated primarily by impulses of self gratification
o Authority-oriented: accepts parental strictures and values as immutable and generalizes
this orientation to include moral standards imposed by other adults and authority
o Peer-oriented: adaptive conformist who goes along with peer group
o Collective-oriented: commited to set of enduring group goals which take precedence
over individual desires
o Objectively oriented: individuals values are functionally autonomoushaving arisen
through social interaction but are no longer dependent, on day to day basis, upon social
agents for their meaning and application
This social-psychological scheme, lacks a developmental dimension. The process through which
a person/group arrives at one or another orientation is not specified. Nor is it clear whether one
type emerges from another, or whether theres a typical sequence of types in development
We propose a socialization model for moral development in hierarchical stages. But our
formulation views the hierarchy not as the product of universally immanent motivational forces,
but as the result of an interaction btw maturing capacities and motivations of the child, on the
one hand, and particular characteristics of his socio-cultural milieu, on the other.
Envison 3 developmental levels, the order of which would be the same for all persons and
o Level 1-hedonic orientation is organizing principle..ethic of self interest/pleasure
o Level 2-allegiance and orientation to some system of social agents..moral behavior given
direction (1-4 stages in Kohlberg)… authority, peer, collective in Bronfenbrenner
o Level 3- highest logical and developmental pattern. Values, principles, and ideas rather
than social agents are the directing forces (5-6 in Kohlberg)..objective orientation
Cultural factors influencing moral socialization
In our view, developmental movement from level 1 to 2 is based on and stimulated by
attachment, the primary socialization of the organism to belong to and with social agents. This is
the process by which the individual organism becomes an acculturated person
Studies of long term consequences of early social neglect indicate a pattern of psychopathology
which may be characterized as amoral
o Process of social redirection or transference- development of attachment initially
directed toward parents and then to other social agents in early and middle childhood
The specific nature of the childs moral orientation within level 2, can change
o The adult orientation is first in the sense that in most cultural settings as a result of the
patterns of child care implied by the universality of the family attachment to specific
adults is the initial form of social orientation
o In settings in which the adults continue to exert a dominant role in the social life of the
child, it may be expected that the authority orientation will endure and develop
Development of the third level-orientation to principle rather than to control by social agents-is
predicated upon a social structure characterized by multiple social agents to whom the child is
attached and who are pulling him in somewhat different directions
For the person operating at level 2, orientation to the social agent is paramount
The kind of social structure capable of generating a level 3 morality, is a balance of competing
forces..neither monolithic nor anomic, it is best characterized as pluralistic
Pluralistic is setting in which social agents and entities represent somewhat different
expectations, sanctions, and rewards for members of the society…these differences generate
intergroup conflict which is largely regulated by a set of ground rules and a common
commitment to goals
Monolithic setting is one in which all social agents and entities are organized around a single set
of goals or principles
Anomic setting is one in which there is almost no integration..social agents and entities are
either absent or represent a multiplicity of divergent forces without any normative or
institutional coherence
Pluralism applies to various aspects of the socialization process, both within family (2 parent vs
1) and to relations btw the family and other socializing systems such as peer group, school,
neighbourhood, community,
Bronfenbrenner found that families in which the parents both have strong and differentiated
identities and family roles tend to have child who rate highest on teacher ratings for such
dimensions as responsibility, autonomy, independence of judgement, interpersonal
adjustment…low ratings in children from families in which one parent dominates
Another experiment showed students exposed to monolithic social setting expressed more
authority oriented moral judgments than those exposed to pluralistic setting
Baumrind found that the authoritative pattern is associated with the highest levels of
competence, responsibility, and other developmentally important characteristics
The accomplishment of primary socialization requires a setting in which sustained interaction
btw child and parent can establish the primary attachment necessary for socially oriented
motivation. This initial motivation is then expanded through social interaction with others to
become a comprehensive orientation toward a specific social agent-level 2. This orientation can
inturn lead to a series of multiple social allegiances which require the individual to develop an
autonomous set of principles as guides for action. If the pattern of multiple competing
allegiances occurs, development of an objective orientation can result. Maintenance of this
level 3 morality for the society as a whole depends on the degree to which a condition of
pluralism is maintained, as opposed to either a monolithic-totalitarian or anomic-chaotic
A model for studying the relationship of socio psychological pluralism to moral development
Developmental Level
Moral Socialization Outcome
Critical Pluralistic Variables
Establishment of attachment
ex: primary socialization
Care giving, both behavioral
and normative
Early childhood
Expansion of primary
attachment relationships into
ever-widening circles
Structure of child-other
interaction: progressive
expansion of patterns of
association from primary
caregiver-infant dyads to
larger social systems
consistent with the optimal
discrepancy model
Later childhood
Development of relationships
to social collectivities,
particularly peer groups and
children’s institutions
Development of multiple
associations rather than
complete immersion in one
Resolution of relationships,
achieve both objective-
principles moral orientation
Integration of individual into
adult roles and experiences
Maintenance of creative
tension btw social identity
and moral objective-
principled orientation
Systems of social support for
alternative patterns of access
to economic and social
Greater the sociopolitical pluralism, the less authority-oriented the children , or conversely,
the greater the moral pluralism