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Chapter 14

PSY100 Psychological Science (3rd Ed.) Textbook Notes Chapter 14

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Alison Luby

CHAPTER 14 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS -Psychopathology: a disorder of the mind -certain criteria should be considered in determining whether behavior represents psychopathology (since behavior considered normal in one setting or culture is deviant in another): (1) Does the behavior deviate from cultural norms? (2) Is the behavior maladaptive? (3) Is the behavior causing the individual personal distress? Psychopathology more defined as thoughts/behaviors that are maladaptive rather than deviant Classification of Psychological Disorders -grouping disorders into categories allows us to investigate the etiology (factors contributing to the development of the disorder) and possible treatments -Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): first categorized mental disorders systematically (1952); earlier versions focused on causes, newer editions focuses on symptoms Patient does not receive single label but classified through a multiaxial system: provides assessment along five axes describing mental health factors; based on realization that various factors affect mental health Five Axes: (1) Clinical Disorders (schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety/sleep/eating disorders); (2) Mental Retardation or Personality Disorders (e.g. antisocial personality disorders, borderline personality disorder); (3) Medical Conditions relevant to mental disorders (e.g. cancer, obesity, Alzeheimers disease); (4) Psychosocial Problems (e.g. unemployment, divorce, poverty); (5) Global/Overall Assessment of functioning (social, psychological, occupational) Assessment of Psychological Disorders -Assessment: examination of a persons mental state to diagnose possible psychological disorders Self Reports Observations Interviews Mental Status Exam used when ppl come into emergency room w/ Assessment mental problems/confusion; uses behavioral observations and determine if mental impairments are due to psychological or Diagnosis physical condition (e.g. stroke) In clinical interview, interviewers skills determine the quantity Treatment and value of info obtained; asks about symptoms and recent experiences that might be causing distress Ongoing Assessment -Unstructured Interviews: guided by clinicians past experiences and observations of client; highly flexible; dependent on interviewers skills -Structures Interviews: standardized questions are asked each time; patients answers are coded according to formula; diagnosis based on specific patterns of responding (e.g. the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM) -behavioral assessments often are useful w/ children (e.g. observing their interaction w/ others) -Psychological Testing: some specific for mental disorders (e.g. Beck Depression Inventory); others assess general mental health Most widely used questionnaire is Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) made in 1930s; true/false items assessing emotions, thoughts, behavior; has clinical scales that generate profile indicating whether client may have particular mental disorder MMPI has validity scales to counteract response bias (e.g. examines whether person answers true to items that are very rare or to large numbers of negative items faking bad) -Neuropsychological Testing: client performs actions like copying a picture, drawing design from memory etc. (examines mental functions); assessment might indicate problems with certain brain region (e.g. to test for Alzeheimers disease)-all clinical evaluation uses evidence-based assessment, where research guides the evaluation of mental disorders, selection of appropriate tests, and making diagnosis Research indicates that many mental disorders occur together, known as comorbidity Dissociative Identity Disorder is a Controversial Diagnosis -Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): aka. Multiple Personality Disorder; the occurrence of two or more distinct identities in the same individual; in the DSM category of dissociative disorders (involve disruptions of identity, memory, and conscious awareness) Diagnosis often occurs when person has difficulty accounting for large chunks of his day (diff identities have periods of amnesia) Separate identities differ substantially like in gender, age, language, patterns of brain activation, and handwriting -most common theory of DID says abused children cope w/ abuse by pretending it to happen to someone else and entering trancelike state and dissociate mental state from physical bodies -researchers remain skeptical about DID: Some ppl have ulterior motives for claiming DID: DID diagnosis often come after ppl have been accused of committing crimes Sharp rise in cases in the 90s in the U.S. Most cases in DID diagnosis involved patients who were unaware of other identities until after therapy sessions; many therapists in 90s believed that childhood trauma was frequently repressed and needed to be uncovered during treatment; might have suggested DID symptoms to patients -independent reports suggests that at least some patients with DID were abused, and abuse can cause psychological problems including distortions of consciousness Causes of Psychological Disorders -Diathesis-Stress Model: diagnostic model that proposes that a disorder may develop when an underlying vulnerability (diathesis) is coupled w/ a precipitating event Diathesis can be biological, or environmental (like childhood trauma); addition of stressf
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